Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الفَاعِل

The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer]

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الْفَاعِلُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَذْكُورُ‏‮ ‬‬قَبْلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَينِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬ومُضْمَرٍ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْفَاعِلُ (the doer) هُوَ (is) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الـْمَذْكُورُ‏‮ ‬‬قَبْلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُهُ (which has its verb (action) mentioned‏‮ ‬‬prior to it being mentioned). وَهُـوَ (And it is) عَـلَى قِـسْمَينِ‏ (of two kinds): ظَـاهِـرٍ (a clearly distinct noun) وَمُضْمَرٍ (and a pronoun).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الفاعل هو الإسم الـمرفوع الـمذكور قبله فعله‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬أن الفاعل‏‮ ‬‬يلـزمه أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون إسمًا وأن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مرفوعًا وأن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فعله مذكورًا قبله لأن إِن كان فعله مذكورًا بعده لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن فاعلاً‏‮ ‬‬بل مبتدًا وخبرًا ولِذَا قلنا وأن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فعله مذكورًا قبله مثاله قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فـزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إسم مرفوع وفعله مذكور قبله فالفاعل قسمان ظاهر ومضمر

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـفَاعِِِِـلُ (the doer) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which has its verb being mentioned‏‮ ‬‬prior to it being mentioned – that is to say, that الْفَاعِلٌ (the doer) must be a noun and in the case of rafʿ and its verb is mentioned before it, because if its verb is mentioned after it, then that noun is not فَـاعِـلاً (a doer), but rather, it is مُـبْتُدَأٌ (a subject noun) and خَـبْرٌ (a predicate).   It is for this reason we have said, “if the verb has been mentioned prior to the mentioning of the noun” – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd stood).  And so, Zayd is a noun in the case  of rafʿ and its verb has been mentioned prior to its being mentioned.  الْفَاعِـلُ (The doer) is of two kinds: ظَـاهِـرٌ (a clearly distinct noun)  and مُـضْمَرٌ  (a pronoun).

Arabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَتْ‏‮ ‬‬هِنْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮  ‬‬هِنْدٌ‏‮  ‬‬وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَانِ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَانِ‏‮  ‬‬وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهُنُودُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهُنُودُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فـَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun) نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (is like when you say): قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬

زَيدٌ‏ (Zayd stood) وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ and (Zayd is standing) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ and (the two Zayds  stood) وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ and (the two Zayds are standing) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ and‏‮ ‬‬(the Zayds [three or more stood]) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ and (the men [three or more] stood) وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ and (the men [three or more] are standing) وَقَامَتْ‏‮ ‬‬هِنْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬and (Hind stood) وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬هِنْدٌ and (Hind is standing)

وَقَامَتِ‏  الْهِنْدَانِ‏  ‬‬and (the two Hinds stood) وَتَقُومُ‏  الْهِنْدَانِ‏ and (the two Hinds are standing) وَقَامَتِِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ and (the Hinds [three or more] stood) وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬and (the Hinds [three or more] are standing) وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الهُنُودُ and (the Hinds [three or more] stood)‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـهُنُودُ‏‮ ‬‬and (the Hinds [three or more stood) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬and (Your ʿbrother stood)‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوك and (your  brother is standing) وَقَام‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬and (my servant stood) وَيَـقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِِـي and‏‮ ‬‬(my servant is standing) وَمَـا أَشْـبَهَ‮ ‬‬ذَلِـكَ (and what resembles that). ‏‮        ‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

‏‮ ‬‬إن الْفاعل الظاهر هو أسم ظاهر مثل زيد في‏‮ ‬‬قولك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ويَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ومثله قَام الزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وقسْ‏‮ ‬‬على ذلك‏‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْفَاعِل الظَّاهِر (the clearly distinct doer noun) is a clearly distinguishable noun, [that is to say: that الْفَاعِلُ is a noun rather than a pronoun] – like:‏‮ ‬‬قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd stood) and يَـقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ (Zayd is standing) similar to these are قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدَانِ (the two Zayds) and الزَّيْدُونَ‮ ‬وَأَخُـوكَ (the Zayds – [three or more] and your brother stood) and so forth.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبْنا‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتُمَا وَضَرَبْـتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتُنَّ‏‮  ‬‬وَضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَـرَبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَـرَبَا وَضَـرَبَتَا وَضَرَبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْنَ‏‮)  ‬‬

English Translation:

الـمُضْمَرُ (The pronoun) إِثْـنَا عَشَـرَ (is [of] twelve‏‮ ‬‬[kinds]) نَـحْوُ (like when you say): ضَرَبْتُ (I beat…) وَضَرَبْنَا and (we beat…) وَضَرَبْتَ and (you [masc. sing.] beat…) وَضَرَبْتِ and (you [fem. sing.] beat…) وَضَرَبْْتُمَا and (the two of you [male or female] beat…) وَضَرَبْتُمْ and (you [three or more males] beat…) وَضَرَبْتُنَّ and (you [three or more females] beat) وَضَرَبَ and (he beat…) وَضَرَبَتْ and (she beat…) وَضَرَبَا and (they [two males] beat…) وَضَرَبَتَا and (they [two females] beat…) وَضَرَبُواْ and (they [three or males] beat) وَضَرَبْنَ and (they [three or more] females beat…).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وقسم مضمرأي‏‮ ‬‬فاعل ليس هو إسمًا ظاهرًا بل ضميرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهو أربعة عشر وهو أيضًا على قسمين متصل ومنفصل وكل منهما ضمير فالضمائر الـمتصلة هي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬يبتدأ الكلام بها و لا تفع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وهي‏‮ ‬‬بذلك علي‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة أقسام ستة للغائب ثلاثة منها للمذكر كقولك ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وثلاثة للمؤنث كقولك‏‮ ‬‬ ضَرَبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَتَا وَضَرَبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وستة للمخاطَب ثلاثة منها للمذكر نحو ضَرَبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتُمَا وَضَرَبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وثلاثة للمؤنث نحو ضَرَبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبْتُمَا وَضَرَبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإثنان للمتكلّم نحو ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْنَا والضمائر الـمنفصلة هي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬يبتدأ الكلام بها وتقع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وأقسامها كما مرّ‏‮ ‬‬تقول هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا ضَرَبَا وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُوا وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ  وَهكذا هِيَ ضَرَبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا ضَرَبَتَا وَهُنَّّ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَاضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬عليه

Explanation of Text in English:

Another kind of (فَـاعِِـل [doer noun]) is مُـضْمَرٌ (a doer pronoun), that is to say فَـاعِِِـلٌ (a doer) which is not إسمًا ظاهرًا (a clearly distinct noun), but rather, a pronoun.  It is of fourteen kinds and also of two types: مُـتَّصِلٌ (attached) and مُنْفَصِلٌ (detached) each of which is a pronoun.

As for الضَّمَائِرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُتَّصِلَة ( the attached pronouns), they are those pronouns which occur at the beginning of the statement and which do not or occur after إِلاَّ (except).  They are of three kinds.  (The first kind is الْـغَائِـب‏ (the person being spoken about or what is known grammatically as the third person). It has six attached pronouns.‏‮ ‬‬Three belong to مُـذَكَّر (the masculine gender) – like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُواْ .‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَاَ . ضَرَبَ and three of them belong to مُؤَنَّث (the feminine gender) – like when you say: ضَرَبْنَ . ضَرَبَتَا . ضَرَبَتْ .

(The second kind is) الـْـمُخَاطِـب (the person being addressed or what is known  grammatically as the second person.) It has six attached  pronounsThree belong to الـمُذَكَّر (the masculine gender) – like when you say: ضَـرَبْـتُمْ . ضَـرَبْـتُمَا . ضَـرَبْـتَ and  three belong to  الْـمُؤَنِّـــــث  (the  feminine gender)  –  like:  ضَـرَبْـتُــــنَّ . ضَـرَبْـتُمـَا . ضَرَبْـتِ

(The third kind) is الـْـمُتَكَلِّم (the person speaking or what is known as the first person.) It has two attached pronouns like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْنَا. . ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬

الضَّماِئرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمُنْفَصِلة (The detached pronouns) are the pronouns which begin a statement and they occur after إَلاَّ. The group of them is similar to what has already been mentioned.  You say:

هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏،‮ ‬‬هُمَا ضَرَبَا،‮ ‬وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُوا،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا،‮ ‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ،  وَهِي ضَرَبَتْ‏،‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا ضَرَبَتَا،‮ ‬وَهُنَّّ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْنَ،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِيَ،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا‏‮ ‬‬َضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا،‮ ‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ

and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن الضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬مثال الـمفرد الغائب ضمير مستتر جوازًا تقديره هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬مثال الـمثنّي‏‮ ‬‬الغائب هو الألف وفي‏‮ ‬‬الجمع هو الواو والضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال للمفردة الغائبة هو ضمير مستتر جوازًا تقديره‏‮  ‬‬هِيَ‏‮ ‬‬والتاء علامة التأنث وفي‏‮ ‬‬مثال مثنَّاها هو الألف والتاء أيضًا علامة التأنيث وفي‏‮ ‬‬جمعها هو النون والضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬أمثلة الـمذكر الـمخاطب هو التاء فقط والأحرف اللاحقة لها هي‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على التثنية والجمع و كذلك ضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال للمفردة الـمخاطبة ومثناها وجمعها هو التاء لا‏‮ ‬‬غير والنون الـمشددة حرف دالّ‏‮ ‬‬على الإناث وهكذا مثال الـمتكلم فالتاء في‏‮ ‬‬قولك ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬هي‏‮ ‬‬ضمير فاعل الـمفرد ونا في‏‮ ‬‬قولك ضَرَبْنَا هي‏‮ ‬‬ضمير الجمع للمتكلمين وأمّا الضمير الفاعل الـمنفصل فظاهر وهو قولك أَنَا ونحن وأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وما أشبه ذلك‏‮   ‬‬

(*note in English)

الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (The doer pronoun) in the example of الـْـمُفْـرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـغَائِـب (the third person masculine singular [ضَـرَبَ] ) is a permissibly concealed pronoun.  Its implication is هُـوَ (he).   In the example of‏‮ ‬‬مُـثَنَّى‏‮ ‬‬الْـغَائِـب‏‮ ‬‬(the third person masculine dual [ضَرَباَ]), it is الأَلِفُ (the alif), and in جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَائِب (the third person masculine plural [ضَرَبُــــوا]), it is الْوَاوُ.

الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ (The doer pronoun) in the example of الـْـمُفْرَدَة الْـغَائِـبَة (the third person feminine singular [ضَـرَبَـتْ]) is a permissibly concealed pronoun. The implication of it is هِـيَ (she).   التَّاءُ (The taa bearing sukuun = تْ) is also a sign of التَّانِـيَث (the feminine doer).‏‮ ‬‬

In the example of مُـثَنّاهَـا (the dual form of الْـغَائِـبَة [third person feminine – ضَـرَبتََا]), the sign of the dual is الأَلِـفُ and التَّاءُ the taa = تََــا) is a sign of التَّانِيَث (the feminine doer).  And in جَـمْعُهَا (the plural form of الَـغَائِـبَة [third person feminine – ضَرَبْنَ), the sign of the doer is النُّون (nuun).

The sign of الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (the doer pronoun) in the example of الْـمُخَاطِب (the second person masculine singular [ضَـرَبْـتَ]) is  التَّاءُ (the taa = تَ) only, while the letters which have affixed to (the taa = تَ) are signs of الـْـمُثَنَى (the dual [ضَـرَبْتُـمَا ]) and الْـجَمْعُ (the plural [ضَرَبْتُـمْ]) and what is similar to that.

The sign of الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِــــلِ (the doer  pronoun)  in  the example of   الْـمُفْـــرَدَة الْـمُخَاطِبَة (the second person  feminine singular [ضَرَبْـتِ]) as well as مُثنّاهَـا (its dual [ضَرَبْتُـمَا]) and  جَمْعُهَا (its plural form [ضَـرَبْتُـنَّ]) is التّاء (the taa) only.  As for  النُّونُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُشَـدَّدَة (The nuun bearing  shaddah = نَّ), it is a letter which is a sign of femininity.

Similarly, in the example of الـْـمُتَــكَـلِّم (the first person singular), التَّاءُ (the taa) is  the sign of the doer- like when say: ضَـرَبْـتُ‏‮ ‬‬ (I beat) which is ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِـلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمُفْرَدِ (the singular doer pronoun) and النَّاءُ (the naa) like when you say: ضَرَبْنَا (we beat) which is ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَـمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمُتَكَـلِّمِينَ. (the doer pronoun of the first person plural).

As for ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِلِ (the detached pronoun doer), it is clearly distinct.  It is as you would say أنَا (I) نَحنُ (we) ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْـت(you m. singular) أَنْـتُمَا (you m. dual) أَنْتُمْ (you m. plural) and what is similar to that.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 6 – The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬مَرْفوُعَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬الاَسْمَاءِ

The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

ʿArabic Text:

‏(‬‬الـْمَرْفُوْعَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬سَبْعَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮  ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَبْرُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا وَخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأََخْوَاتِهَا وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَرْفُوْعِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالعَطْفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوْكِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَدَلُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْـمَرْفُوعَاتُ (the nouns in the case of rafʿ) are seven: وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬(they are): الْـفَاعِلُ (the doer) وَالـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬(and the object of the verb) الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮  ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ (which did not mention its doer) وَالُـمُبْتَدَأُ (and the subject) وَالْـخَـبْرُ (and the predicate) وَإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِـهَا (and the noun of kaana and its sisters) وَخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاِتهَا (and the predicate of inna and its sisters) وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِـلْمَرْفُوْعِ (and what follows the noun in the case of rafʿ) وَهُـوَ (and they are) أَرْبَـعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْـيَاءَ (four things): النَّعْتُ (the attribute / adjective) وَالْـعَطْفُ (and the conjoined noun) وَالتَّوْكِـيدُ (and the emphasized noun) and وَالْبَدَلُ (the substitute noun).


Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 5 – The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs]

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الافْعَالِ

5 – (The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَاضٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضَارِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬وَيَضْرِبُ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِضْرِبْ‏‮  ‬‬فَالـْمَاضِي‏‮ ‬‬مَفْتُوحُ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَدًا وَالأَمْرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَجْزُومٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَدًا‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُضَارِعُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬إِحْدَى الزَّوَائِدِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعِ‏‮ ‬‬يَجْمَعُهَا قَوْلُك أَنَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مَرْفُوعٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَدًا حَتَّى‏‮ ‬‬يَدْخُلَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْه‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮ ‬‬نَاصِبٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬جَازِمٌ‏‮)‏

English Translation:

الأفْعَالُ (the verbs) ثَلاَثَةٌ (are three kinds) : مَاضٍ (past tense) وَمُضَارِعٌ (and present tense) وَأَمْرٌ‏  (and command tense) نَحْوُ (like): ضَرَبَ ( He beat…) وَيَضْرِبُ  and (He beats…) إِضْرِبْ and (beat…). فَالـْمَاضِي‏  (And so the  past tense verb) مَفْتُوحُ‏  الآخِرِِِ (bears fat-ḥah on the end) أَبَدًا (always);وَالأَمْرِِ (and command tense verb) مَجْزُومٌ  (is in the case of jazm) أَبَدًا (always);. وَالـْمُضَارِعُ(and the present tense verb) – مَا كَانَ‏  فِي‏  أَوَّلِهِ (what is found at the beginning of it) إِحْدَى اَلزَّوَائِدِ‏  الأربَعِ (is one of the four affixed prefixes) يَجْمَعُهَـــا (which when joined together) قَوْلُكَ (you say): أَنَيْتُ (anaytu). ‏  وَهُو (It [the present tense verb])مَرْفُوعٌ (is in the case of rafʿ) أَبَدًا (always), حَتَّى‏  يَدْخُلَ‏  عَلَيْه (unless precedes it),نَاصِبٌ (a particle of the naṣb case) أَوْ (or) جَازِمٌ (a particle of the case of jazm).

 

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الأفعال ثلاثة ماضٍ‏‮ ‬‬مثل ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬مضارعٌ‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬أمرٌ‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬فالـماضي‏‮ ‬‬مفتوح الآخر أبداً‏‮ ‬‬مثل ضَرَبََ‏‮ ‬‬ما لم‏‮ ‬‬يتّصل به ضميرٌ‏‮ ‬‬رفعٍ‏‮ ‬‬متحرّك فَيُسَكِّنُ‏‮ ‬‬آخره كقولك ضَرَبـْـتُ‏‮ ‬‬أو ضميرٌ‏‮ ‬‬جمعٍ‏‮ ‬‬مذكَّر فَيُضَمُّ‏‮ ‬‬كقولك ضَرَبُوا والـمضارع الذي‏‮ ‬‬يعرف بما وُجِد في‏‮ ‬‬أوّله إحدى الزوائد الأربع‏‮ ‬‬يجمعها قولك أَنَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬نحو أَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ونـَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ويـَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬وتـَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬فهو مرفوع أبدًا كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ويَضْرِبُون‏‮ ‬‬َُ‏‮ ‬‬وتَضْرِبِينَ‏‮ ‬‬حتى‏‮ ‬‬يدخلا عليه ناصبٌ‏‮ ‬‬فينصبه كقولك لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَ‏‮  ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَضْرِبِِي‏‮ ‬‬أو جازم فيجزمه كقولك لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَا وهَـلُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬جرًّا وأمّا الأمر فمجزوم الآخر أبدًا كقولك إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬وإِخْـشَ‏‮ ‬‬وإِغْـزُ‏‮ ‬‬وإِرْمِ‏‮ ‬‬وإِضْرِبَا وإِضْرِبُوا‏‮   ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الأفـعالِ (the verbs) are of three kinds: مَاضٍ (past tense) – like: ضَرَبَ ( He beat…) and مُضَارِعٌ (present tense) – like:  يَضْرِبُ (He beats…) and أمْرٌ (the command tense) – like:  إِضْرِبْ ([you] beat…).  And so الـْمَاضِي (the past tense verb) always bears الْفَتْحَة (fat-˙ah) = ــَـ  on the end – like: ضَرَبَ.  ضَمِيرٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُتَحَرِّك (A vowelized pronoun in the case of rafʿ) is never affixed to (the end of) it.  However, it (الـْمَاضِي) does bear السُّكُون (sukuun) = ــْـ  at its end when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ .   It (الـْمَاضِي) is caused to have‏‮ ‬‬الضّمّة‏‮ ‬‬(∂ammah) = ــُـ  (as a final vowel when‏‮ ‬‬ضَمِيـــرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُذَكَّرٍ  (a pronoun of the masculine plural) [is affixed to the end of it] – like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُواْ.

الْـمُضَارِعُ (The present tense verb) is know by what is found in the front of it from one of اَلزَّوَائِد الأرْبَعِ (the four prefixes) – like when you say:  أَنَيْـــتُ – that is to say: أَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ونَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ويَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬وتَضْـرِبُ.  الْـمُضَارِعُ is also in the case of rafʿ – like when  you  say:‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَانِ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُونَ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬ تَضْرِبِينَ.  It (الْـمُضَارِعُ) is always in the case of rafʿ, unless نَاصِبٌ (a particle of the naṣb case) is preceding it.  It (نَاصِبٌ [a particle of the naṣb case]) causes it (الْـمُضَارِع) to  be  in  the  case   of   naṣb   –   like  when  you  say: لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبْ ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْـرِبَا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَضْـــرِبِيor if they are preceded by جَازِم (a particle of the jazm case), then they are caused to be in the case of jazm – like when you say:: لَمْ يَضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬and so forth.  As for الأَمْر (the command tense verb), its end is always inflected with the jazm case ending – like when you say:إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِِخْشَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِغْزُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِرْمَِ  وَإِضْرِبَا وَإِضْرِبُوا.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَالنَّوَاصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْجُحُودِ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَتَّى وَجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْفَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وََالْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَوْ‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

فـَالنَّوَاصِبُ (And so the particles of naṣb). وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَةٌ (They are ten):

أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجُحُودِ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَتَّى وَالْـجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـفَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَوْ‏‮              ‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

النّواصب عشرة وهي‏‮ ‬‬أن ولن وإذن وكي‏‮ ‬‬ولامُ‏‮ ‬‬كي‏‮ ‬‬ولام الجحود وحتّى والجواب بالفاء والواو وأو وهي‏‮ ‬‬بذالك على قسمين قسم‏‮ ‬‬ينصب بذاته وهي‏‮ ‬‬الأربعة الـمتقدِّمات وقسم‏‮ ‬‬ينصب بواسطة أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬مضمرةً‏‮ ‬‬وهي‏‮ ‬‬الستة الـمتأخرة‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال أن‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أُرِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أعْلَمَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لن‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْجِــعَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى الْـخَطِيئَةِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إذن‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أُدْخُــلَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَـنَّةَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال كي‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬عَلَّمَهُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْ‏‮ ‬‬يََعْلَم‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لام كي‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬تُبْ‏‮ ‬‬لـِـيَغْفِــرَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لام الجحود‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬لِـيَغْفِــرَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـلْمُصِرِّينَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـلَى خَطَايَاهُمْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال حتّى‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى أُدْخُــلَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَدِينَةَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال الجواب بالفاء والواو‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬زُرْنِي‏‮ ‬‬فَــأَكْرِمَــكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَو وَأَكْرِمَــكَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال الجواب بأو‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬َلأَمْنَعَنَّكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتُوبُوا‏‮ – ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬إلى أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتُوبُوا

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّوَاصِبُ (the particles of naṣb) are ten.  They are:

أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَامُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجُحُودِ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَتَّى وَالْـجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَوْ

They in turn are of two kinds.  The first kind causes the verb to be in the case of naṣb due to the nature of the verb. They are the first four above mentioned particles.  The other kind causes the verbs to be in the case of naṣb by means of the particle أَنْ which is concealed (مُضْمَرَةً). They are the last six particles.

These are their examples:

[أنْ] – أُرِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أُعَلِّمَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I want to teach Zayd)

[لَنْ] – لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْجِعَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلي‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَطِيئَةِ  – (I will never return to sin)

[إذنْ] – إِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَدْخُلَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْجَـنَّـةَ  – (Therefore, I will enter the garden)

[كَيْ] – عَلَّمَهُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْ‏‮ ‬‬يََعْلَمَ  – (I taught him so that he would know)

[لاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْْْ]تُبْ‏‮ ‬‬لِيَغْفِرَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ  –  (Repent so that Allah may forgive you)

[لاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْجُحُودِ] – مَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬ لِيَغْفِرَ‏‮ ‬‬لِلمُصِرِّين عَـلَى خَطَايَاهُمَ  – (Allah does not forgive those who persist in their sins)

[حَـتَّى] – سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى أَدْخُلَ الــْمَدِينَةَ  – (I traveled until I entered the city)

[الجواب بِالْفاء و الْوَاوُ] –  زُرْنِي‏‮ ‬‬فَأَكْرِمَكَ or زُرْنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَأَكْرِمَكَ (Visit me and I will honor you)

[اَلْجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَوْ] -لأَمْنَعَنَّكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتُوبُواْ (I shall certainly prevent you from entering unless you repent)

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْجَوَازِمُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلـَمَّا وَأَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَلـَمَّا وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْيِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا وَمَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَهْمَا وَإذْمَا وَأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَتَى وَأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّى وَحَيْثُمَا وَكَيْفَمَا وَإِذَا فِي‏‮ ‬‬الشِّعْرِ‏‮ ‬‬خَاصَّةً‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

And الجَوَازِمُ (the particles of jazm) are eighteen and they are:

لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلـَمَّا وَأَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَلـَمَّا وَلاَمُ لأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاء وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا وَمَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَهْمَا وَإِذْمَا وَأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَتَى وَأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّىَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَيْثُمَا‏‮  ‬‬وَكَـيْـفَمَا وَإِذَا‏‮ ((‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الشِّعْرِ‏‮ ‬‬خَاصَّةً‏‮))‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الجوازم ثمانية عشر وهي‏‮ ‬‬بذالك على قسمين‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬قسم‏‮ ‬‬يجزم فعلا واحدًا وهي‏‮ ‬‬ستّة أحرف لم ولـمّا وألم والـمّا ولام الأمر والدّعاء ولا في‏‮ ‬‬النّهي‏‮ ‬‬والدّعاء‏‭:‬‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لم‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لـمّا‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لـَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬يَأْتِِِِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال ألم‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَقُلْ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال الـمّا‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَلـَمَّآ أُحْسِنْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْك‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لام الأمر لِيَضْرِبْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬والدّعاء‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لِيَرْحَمْنَااللَّهُ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لا في‏‮ ‬‬النّهي‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَشْهَدْ‏‮ ‬‬بِالزُّورِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬والدّعاء‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تُعَامِلْنَا بِعَدْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَبَ

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـجَوَازِمُ (the particles of jazm) are eighteen and they are divided into two kind.  The first kind causes only one verb to be in the  case  of  jazm.  and  they are the first six أَحْرُف (particles):

لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لـَمَّا وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَلـَمَّا وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ

They are used as follows:

[لَمْ]لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو  – (I did not go with ʿAmr)

[لَمَّا]‏‮ ‬‬لـَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬يَأْتِ (He has not come yet)

[ أَلَمْ] ‏‮ ‬‬أَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَقُلْ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ (…Did I not say to you)

[أَلَمَّا]أَلَـمَّآ أُحْسِنْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْكَ (I have not yet given you charity)

[لامَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الدُّعَاءِ] لِيَضْرِبْ  (let him beat)  ‏

‮ ‬‬لِـيَرْحَـمْنَااللَّهُ‏‮  ‬‬‮ ‬(May Allah have mercy on us)‏

[لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النّهْيِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ]  – لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَشْهَدْ‏‮ ‬‬بِالزُّورِ (Do not testify with lies)

(Used when commanding the human being to refrain from an action)

اَ‏‮ ‬‬تُعَامِلْنَا بِعَدْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَبُّ (Do not apply your justice to us Oh Lord)

(Used when asking for Allah’s mercy, not to punish us)

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic

وقسم‏‮ ‬‬يجزم فعلين‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى الأوّل فعل الشرط والثاني‏‮ ‬‬جوابه وهي‏‮ ‬‬إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا ومَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ومَهْما وإِذْمَا وأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَتَى وأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنَّى وحَيْثُمَا وكَيْفَمَا وإِذَا في‏‮ ‬‬الشّعر خاصّة‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إِنْ‏‭:‬‬ إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تََكْسَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَخْسَرْ ‏‮❊ ‬‬مثال‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَنْ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَطْلُبْ‏‮ ‬‬يَجِذْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال ما‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَا تَفْعَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَلْقَ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال مهْما‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَهْمَا تَفْعَلْهُ‏‮ ‬‬تُجَازَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إذما‏‭:‬‬ إِذْمَا تَجْضُرْ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرِمْكَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬

مثال أيّ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَيّــًا تُصَاحِبْ‏‮ ‬‬أُصَاحِبْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال متى‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَتَى اَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِمَامَة تَعْرِفْنِي‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال أيّان‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْزِلْ‏‮ ‬‬اَنْزِلْ ‏‮❊ ‬‬مثال أين‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬تَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال أَنَّى‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَنَّى تَجْلِسْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجلِسْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال حيثما‏‭:‬‮  ‬‬حَيْثُمَا تَسْقُطْ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْبِثْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال كيفما‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬كَيْفَ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَوَجَّهْ‏‮ ‬‬تُصَادِفْ‏‮ ‬‬خَيْرًَا‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إذا‏‭:‬‬ إذَا تُصِبْكَ‏‮ ‬‬خُصَاصَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَحَمَّلْ

Explanation of Text in English:

The other kind of [particle of jazm] causes two verbs (in the same sentence) to be in the case of jazm. The first verb is called فِـعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّرْط (the verb of the conditional situation)  and  the second verb is called  فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْجَوَاب (the verb of the answer to the conditional situation).  These particles are:

إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا وَمَهْمَا وَإِذْمَا وَأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَتَّى وَأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنَّى وَأَيْنَ‏‮  ‬‬وَحَيْثُمَا وَكَيْفَمَا وَإِذا في‏‮ ‬‬الشّعر خاصّة‏‮   ‬‬

They are used in the following way:

[إِنْ]إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تََكْسَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَخْسَرْ (If you are lazy, you will suffer a loss.)

[مَنْ]مَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَطْلُبْ‏‮ ‬‬يَجِدْ (He who seeks will find)

[مَا]مَا تَفْعَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَلْقَ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ (Whatever you do will meet with Allah)

[مَهْمَا]مَهْمَا تَفْعَلْهُ‏‮ ‬‬تُجَازَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ (Whatever you do you will be compensated for it)

[ إِذْمَا] – ‏‮ ‬‬إِذْمَا تََََـحْضُرْ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرِمْكَ (Whenever you arrive, I will honor you)

[أَيٌّ]أَيّــًا تُصَاحِبْ‏‮ ‬‬أُصَاحِبْ (Whomever you befriend I will befriend)

[مَتَى]مَتَى أَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِمَامَة تَعْرِفْنِي (When I put on the turban you will know me)

[أَيَّانَ]أَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْزِلْ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْزِلْ(When you dismount I will dismount.)

[أَيْنَ]أَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬تَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ – (Wherever you go I will go.)

[أَنَّى] -أَنَّى تَـجْلِسْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجلِسْ – (Wherever you sit, I will sit.)‏‮

[حَيْثُمَا]حَيْثُمَا تَسْقُطْ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْبِثْ  – (Wherever you arrive you will stay)

[كَيْفَمَا]كَيْفَمَا‏‮ ‬‬تَتَوَجَّهْ‏‮ ‬‬تُصَادِفْ‏‮ ‬‬خَيْرًَا (Wherever you go you will find good)

[إِذَا] إذَا تُصِبْكَ‏‮ ‬‬خُصَاصَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَحَمَّلْ (If poverty befalls you, be patient)

 

 

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 4 – A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned)

فَصْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَفْصِيلِ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ

A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلـْمُعْرَبَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحَرَكاتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَقِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحَرَكَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلُ الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُلُّهَا تُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالضَّمَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُجْزَمُ  بِالسُّكُونِ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮  ‬‬يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ الـْمُعْتَلُّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخر‏‮ ‬‬يُجْزَمُ‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

اَلـْمُعْرَابَاتُ (Inflected words) قِِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬(are of two kinds).  قِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬(One kind is inflected) بِالْحَرَكَاتِ (with the vowels) وَقِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ (and the other kind is inflected) بِالْحَرُوفِ (with the letters).‏‮ ‬‬فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ (And so that which is inflected) بِالْـحَرَكَاتِ  (with the vowels) أَرْبَعةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ (are four kinds):  الإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْـرَدِ (The singular noun) وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّّكْسِيرِ (and the broken plural noun) وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنِثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (and the sound feminine plural noun) وَالْفِعْــــلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُضَـــارِعُ (and present tense verb) الِـذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ (for which nothing has been affixed to its end). وَكُلُّهَا (And each of them) تُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالضَّمَّةِ (is  caused  to  be in the case of rafʿ by ammah: ‏‮ ‬‬ــُـ ) وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ (and in the case of naṣb by fat-˙ah: ــَـ) وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِ (and in the case of khafḍ by kasrah: ــِـ) وَتُجْزَمُ بِالسُّكُونِ (and in the case of jasm by sukuun ــْـ ).

‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬(Three things) خَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك (depart from these [rules]): جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنِّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun) يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِِ‏‮ ‬‬(is caused to be in the case of naṣb by kasrah [instead of fat-˙ah]) وَالإسْــمُ‏‮ ‬‬الــــذي (and the noun which)‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ (is not fully declinable) يَخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ (is caused to be in the case of khafḍ by fat-˙ah [instead of kasrah]) الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضَارِعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُعْتَلُّ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (and the  present tense verb weak at the end) يُجْزَمُ (is caused to be in the case of jazm)‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (by the dropping of its last letter).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ الـمعربات قسمان قسم‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحركات وقسم‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحروف فالذي‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحركات أربعة أنواع أوّلها الإسم الـمفرد كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِــزَيْــدٍ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيها جمع التكسير كقولك جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ‏‮ ‬‬ثالثها جمع الـمؤنّث السالم كقولك جَاءَتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَــاتُ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَــاتِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنَــاتِ‏‮ ‬‬رابعها الفعل الـمضارع الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يتصل بآخره شيء‏‮ ‬‬يجب بناءه كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬فهذه جميعها تُرفع بالضمّة وتُنصب بالفتحة وتُخفض بالكسرة وتُجزم بالسكون إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬الـمومنات في‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬وقد خرج عن هذا الأصل ثلاثة أشياء أوّلها‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الأصل في‏‮ ‬‬إعراب الإسم الـمنصوب أن‏‮ ‬‬يُنصَب بفتحة فجمع الـمؤنث السالم خرج عن هذا الأصل لانّه‏‮ ‬‬يُنصَب بكسرة فتقول رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَــاتِ‏‮ ‬‬بكسْـر التاء لا بفتحها وثانيها‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الأصل في‏‮ ‬‬إعراب الإسم الـمخفوض أن‏‮ ‬‬يُخفَضَ‏‮ ‬‬بكسرة فالإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬لاينصرف خرج عن هذا الأصل لانّه‏‮ ‬‬يُخفَض بفتحة فتقول مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَحْمَــدَ‏‮ ‬‬ويُوسُــفَ‏‮ ‬‬بفتح الدال والفاء فيهما لا بكسرهما ثالثها‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الأصل في‏‮ ‬‬جزم الفعل الـمضارع أن‮ ‬‬يُجزَم بالسكون فالفعل الـمضارع الـمعتلّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخر خرج عن هذا الأصل لانّه‏‮ ‬‬يٌجزَم بحذف آخره فتقول لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْــزُ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْـشَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ‏‮ ‬‬كما تقدّم بيانه

Explanation of Text in English:

اَلـْـمُعْرَابَاتُ (Inflected words) are of two kinds.  One kind is inflected بِالـْحَرَكَاتِِ (with the vowels) and another kind is inflected بـالْـحُرُوفِ (with letters).   And so that which is inflected by الـحَرَكَات are four kinds.  The first of them is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْــــرَد (the singular noun) – like when you say:

جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ.  The second of them is جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ (the broken plural noun)  – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ and رَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالَ‏‮ ‬‬and مَرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ.  The third of them is جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنِثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun) – as you would say: جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمـُومِناتُ and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَاتِ and مَرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْمُومِنَاتِ.  The fourth is الْـفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع (the present tense verb) for which nothing has been affixed to its end – like when you say: يَـضْرِبُ.  And so all of the above mentioned are in the case of rafʿ by ‏‮  ‬‬ــُـ ‏‮= ‬‬الضَّمَّة  and in the case of naṣb  by ــَـ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮=‬‬‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَتْحَة‏‮ ‬‬and in the case of khafḍ by  ــِـ ‏‮=‬‬‏‮ ‬‬الْكَسْـرَة‏‮ ‬‬ and in the case of jazm by ــْـ ‏‮=‬‬‏‮ ‬‬السُّكُون‏‮ ‬‬with the exception of the word.الـْمُومِنَاتِ in the sentence رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَات.  This is because three things depart from the rule of inflection of words with اَلْـحَرَكَـات (vowels).  First, the rule for إِعْرَاب الِإسْـم الْـمَـنْصُوبِ (the inflection of the noun in case of naṣb) is that it should be inflected with الْـفَتْحَة (fat˙ah),  however جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِـمِ (the sound feminine plural) departs from this rule, because it is caused to be in the case of naṣb by a  الْكَسْـرَة  (kasrah)- like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْمُومِنَاتِ with الْكَسْرَة [ــِـ] on the (letter) taa instead of  الْفَتْحَة [ــَـ].

Secondly, the rule for إِعْرَب الإِسْـمِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَخْفُوضِ (the inflection of the noun in the case of khafḍ) is that it should be inflected with الْكَسْـرَة (kasrah), however الِإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَا‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ, (the partially declinable noun or diptote) departs  from this rule, because it is caused to be in the case of الْـخَفُض (khafḍ) by الْفَتَحَة (fat˙ah)- like when you say: مَـرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُوسُفَ‏‮ ‬‬with الفتحة [ــَـ] on الدَّال and الْفَاءْ (instead of الْكَسْـرَة[ــِـ]).

Thirdly, the rule concerning the inflection of الفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع in the case of jazm is that it should be inflected with السُّكُون, however الْفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع الْـمُعْتَلّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِر (the present tense verb that is weak  at  its  end)  departs  from  this rule, because  it  is  caused  to  be  in the case  of  jazm  by حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (dropping its last letter) – like when you say: لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْزُ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْشَ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ  – similar to what has been mentioned before in their explanation.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْنِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلُونُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلِين فَأَمَّا التَّثْنِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْيَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّا جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِالسَّالِم فَيُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْيَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّاالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبَ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّاالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخََمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتُرَفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالنُّونِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُجْزَمُ‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِهَا‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَالـــذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحُرُوفِِِ (And (the words) which are inflected with letters) أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ (are  four kinds): التّثنيةُ (the dual noun) وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِـمِ (and the  sound masculine plural noun)‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِِ (and the five nouns)‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَـةُ (and the five verbs) وَهِيَ (and they are): يَـفْعَلاَنِ ,‏‮ ‬‬تَـفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬, يَـفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬,‏‮ ‬‬تَـفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬, تَـفْعَلِينَ.

فَأَمَّا التَّـثْـنِيَةُ (As for the dual noun), فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ (it is  caused  to  be in  the  case  of   rafʿ by  alif =ا) وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْيَاءِ (and it is caused to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by yaa = ي) وَأَمَّا جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِـمِ (As for the sound masculine plural noun), فَيُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَاوِ (it is caused to be in the case of rafʿ by waaw = و) وَيُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْيَاءِ (and it is caused to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by yaa = ي).

وَأَمَّاالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ (As for the five nouns), فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬(they are caused to be in the case of  rafʿ by  waaw = و ) and وَتُنْصَبَ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ (and they are caused to be in the case of naṣb by alif = ا) وَيُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْيَاءِ (and they are cause to be in the case of khafḍ by yaa = ي). وَأَمَّاالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخََمْسَةُ (As for the five verbs), فَتُرَفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالنُّونِ (they are caused to be in the case of rafʿ by nuun = ن) وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُجْزَمُ‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِهَا (and they are caused to be in the cases of naṣb and jazm by the dropping of nuun [from the end of the verb]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬ما‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحروف أربعة أنواعٍ‏‮ ‬‬أيضًا أوّلها التّثنية ثانيها جمع الـمذكّر السّالم ثالثها الأسماء الخمسة رابعها الأفعال الخمسة فالتّثنية تُرفَع بالألف كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرُّّجُــلاََنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتُنصَب وتُخفَض بالياء كقولك رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَـيْـنِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بالرَّجُلَــيْـنِ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع الـمذكّر السّالم‏‮ ‬‬يرفع بالواو كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنُـونَ‏‮ ‬‬وينصب ويخفض بالياء كقولك رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنِــيـنَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنِــيــنَ‏‮ ‬‬والأسماء الخمسة ترفع بالواو فتقول جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفُوكَ‏‮  ‬‬وذُو مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتنصب بالألف فتقول رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَـاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفَاكَ‏‮  ‬‬وذَا مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتخفض‏‮  ‬‬بالياء‏‮  ‬‬فتقول مَرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَبِـيكَ‏‮  ‬‬وأَخِيكَ‏‮  ‬‬وحَمِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وذِي‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬والافعال الخمسة ترفع بالنّون فتقول‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬ويَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلِيـنَ‏‮ ‬‬وتنضب وتجزم بحذفها فتقول في‏‮ ‬‬النصب لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَـلُـوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِــي‏‮ ‬‬وتقول في‏‮ ‬‬الجزم لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَـلُـوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِــي‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

The words which are inflected with letters are four kinds.  The first of them is التَّثْـنِِيَةُ (the dual noun), the second of them‏‮ ‬‬وَجمع‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكِِّرِالسَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬(the sound masculine plural), the third is‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـخَمْسَةُ (the five nouns), the fourth is الاَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَةُ (the five verbs).

As for التَّـثْـنِيَةُ (the dual noun), it is caused to be in the case of rafʿ by  الأِلفُ (alif) – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلانِ (the two men came) and it is caused to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by  الْيَـــاءُ (yaa) – like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ رَأَيْـــتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَيْنِ and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرَّجُلَيْنِ.

جمع الْـمُذَكَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمُ (the sound masculine plural, is caused to be in the case of rafʿ by‏‮ ‬‬الوَاوُ  (waaw) –  like when  you  say:‏‮ ‬‬ جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنُونَ  and  it  is  caused  to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by الْيَاءُ (yaa)- like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنِينَ and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِِالـْمُومِنِينَ.

الأسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَةُ (The five nouns) are caused to be in the case of raf’ by الْوَاوُ (waaw) – like when you say: جَاء أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأخُوك وَحَمُوكَ وَفُوكَ وَذُو مَالٍ and they are caused to be in the case of naṣb by الألف (alif)- like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَاكَ وَأَخَاكَ وَحَمَاكَ وَ فَاكَ وَذا مَالٍ and in the case of khafḍ by الياء – like when you say:   مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأبِيك وَأخِيكَ وَحَمِيكَ وَفِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَذِ‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ.

الاَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَة (the five verbs) are caused to be in the case of rafʿ by النّون (nuun) – like when you say:  يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَفْعَلُونَ وَتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلينَ‏‮ ‬‬and they are to be in the cases of naṣb and jazm by حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّون. – like when you say:لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعـَلاَ وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَـلُـوا‏‮  ‬‬وَلَن‏‮ ‬‬ْتَفْعَلُوا وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي in the case of naṣb and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ لَمْ تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلُوا وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي  in the case of jazm.