أحْكَام الإعْرَاب (Rules of Inflection)
الْـمُعْرَبُ بالْـحَرَكَة (The Word That is Inflected with the Vowel) and الْـمُعْرَبُ بِالْـحَرْف (The Word That is Inflected with the Letter)
There are two kinds of الْـمُعْرَبَـات (Inflected words): words that are inflected with vowels and words that are inflected with letters. There are four kinds of words that are inflected with vowels: الْإِسْمُ الْـمُفْرَدُ (the singular noun), جَمْعُ التَّكْسِيرِ (the broken plural noun), جَمْعُ الْـمُؤَنِثِ السَّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun), and الْفِعْلُ الْـمُضَارُ الَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّصِلْ بِآخَرِهِ شَيْءٌ (the present tense verb which does not have anything affixed to its end [that is necessary for its construction]).
All of the above mentioned words are in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah, in the case of naṣb by fatḥah, in the case of jarr by kasrah and in the case of jazm by sukuun. The exception to this rule is: the noun which is not fully inflective which is in the case of jarr by fatḥah, like when you say: صَـلَّى اللهُ عَـلَى إِبْرَاهِمَ; and the sound feminine plural which is in the case of naṣb by kasrah, like when you say: أَكْرِمْتُ الْـمُجْتَحِدَاتِ , and the present tense verb which has a weak letter affixed to its end. It is caused to be in the case of jazm by dropping the weak letter, like when you say لَمْ يَخْشَ (يَخْشَــى) ولَمْ يَـمْشِ (يَـمْشِــي) ولَمْ يَغْزُ) (يَغْزُو)ا.
There are also four kinds words which are inflected with letters: الْـمُثَنّى وَالْـمُلْحَق بِهِ (the dual noun and what is annexed to [follows] it), جَمْعُ الْـمُذَكِّرِ السَّالِمِ وَالْـمُلْحَقُ بِهِ (the sound masculine plural and what is annexed to [follows] it), الْأَسْـمَاءُ الْـخَـمْسَةُ (the five nouns) and الأَفْعَالُ الْـخَـمْسَةُ (the five verbs). The five nouns are: أَبُو وَأخُو وَحَمُو وَفُو وَذُو. The five verbs are: يَذْهَبَانِ وَتَذْهَبْانِ وَيَذْهَبُونَ وَتَذْهَبُونَ وَتَذْهَبِينَ. More explanation of all of these in the sections that explain the inflection of verbs and nouns.
The Divisions of الإعْرَابُ (the Inflection of Words)
There are three types ofالإعْـرَابُ (word inflection): اللَـفْظِيّ (expressed inflection), تَـقْدِيريّ (implied inflection) and مَحَـلْيّ (inflection due to the word’s location).
الإعْـرَابُ اللَـفْظِيّ (Expressed Inflection)
الإعْـرَابُ اللَـفْظِيّ (Expressed inflection) is a clear signed placed at the end of the word due to the governor that precedes it. Expressed inflection is found in inflective words that are not weak at the end. For example: يُكْرِمُ الأُسْتَاذُ الْـمُجْتَحهِدَ.
الإعْـرَابُ التَّـقْدِيريّ (Implied Inflection)
الإعْـرَابُ التَّـقْدِيريّ (Implied inflection) is a sign not clearly seen at the end of the word due to the governor that precedes it. The vowel at the end of the word is implied because it can’t be expressed. They are words which are weak because they have alif, waaw or yaa affixed to their end. andالإعْـرَابُ التَّـقْدِيريّ (implied inflection) is also found in the nouns that are in iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person masculine pronoun, and in a word used for illustration or example when not a sentence.الإعْـرَابُ التَّـقْدِيريّ (Implied inflection) is also found in any fixed word or sentence that is said to haveالإعْـرَابُ التَّـقْدِيريّ (implied inflection).
إعْرَابُ الْـمُعْتِلِّ الآخَرِ (Inflection of Words That are Weak at the End)
It is not possible to affix any of the three vowels to alif maqsuurah, for example: يَقْضِي الْقَاضِي عَلَى الّهُدَى لِلعُلَى. The meaning of not possible is that it is not possible for the three signs of inflection: ḍammah, fatḥah, and kasrah, to be affixed to alif maqṣuurah.
As for the case of jazm, alif maqṣuurah is dropped as a sign of jazm, like when you say: لَمْ يَخْشَ إِلاَّ اللهَ.
As for waaw and yaa, ḍammah and kasrah are impicit for them because they are burdensome on the tongue if expressed, and so you say: يَقْضِي الْقَاضِي عَلَى الْـجَانِي and يَدْعُو الدَّاعِي إِلَى النَّادِي
What is meant by the term burdensome on the tongue is that the affixing of ḍammah and kasrah to waaw and yaa is possible, like if you say: يَقْضِيُ الْقَاضِيُ عَلَى الْـجَانِي and يَدْعُوُ الدَّاعِيُ إِلَى النَّادِي but it is a burden on the tongue that is greatly disliked. This is the reason why both ḍammah and kasrah are implied rather than expressed. That is to say, that the possibility of their expression is understood, but not done.
إعْرَابُ الْـمُضَافِ إِلَى يَاءِ الْـمُتَكَلَّمِ (The Inflection of the Noun That is in an Iḍaafah Construction with the Yaa First Person Pronoun)
The noun that is in an iḍaafah construction with the first person pronoun is inflected (as long as it doesn’t end with alif maqṣuurah, or it is not a defective noun, or a dual noun or a sound masculine plural noun). It is in the case of rafʿ or naṣb by either an implied ḍammah or fatḥah the end which cannot appear at the end of the nouns in the case of rafʿ or naṣb, because the kasrah (which is the vowel that corresponds with yaa) must be used, like when you say: رَبِّيَ اللهُ and أَطَعْتُ رَبِّي.
As for the case of jarr, it is known by placing kasrah clearly at the end of a noun according to what is most correct, like when you say: الزِّمْتُ طَاعَةَ رَبِّي. This is the opinion/view of a group of the recognized/competent grammarians, among whom is Ibnu Mālik, while The majority of them agree that it is inflected, and also in the case of jarr at the end by an implied kasrah. This is because they are of the opinion that the kasrah which appears at the end is not a sign of jarr, but rather, it is the kasrah which accompanies the yaa of the first person singular pronoun when it is affixed to a noun, while the kasrah of the case of jarr is implied.
If the noun in an iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun is affixed with alif maqṣuurah as a final vowel, the alif remains in its condition, and is inflected with implied vowels on the alif maqsuurah in the same manner it would have been inflected before the yaa of the first person singular pronoun would have been affixed to it, and so you say: هَـذِه عَـصَايَ and تَـوَكَّأَْتُ عَـلى عَـصَايَ. If the noun is defective, then its yaa is assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun.
The noun in the case of naṣb is inflected with an implied fatḥah because the sukuun of assimilation is prevented from appearing on it, and so you say: حَـمِدْتُ اللهَ مُـعْطِيّ الرِزْقَ
The noun in the case of rafʿ and jarr is inflected by implied ḍammah and kasrah on its yaa, which are prevented from appearing on either of them because the first is heavy on the tongue and the second is the sukuun of assimilation, and so you say: اللهَ مُـعْطِيّ الرِزْقَ and شَكَرْتُ لِـمُـعْطِيّ الرِزْقَ.
Some of the recognized/competent grammarians are of the opinion/view that the appearance of ḍammah and kasrah on the defective letters that are in an iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun are prohibited whenever it is the sukuun of assimilation, and it’s a similar case when it is the case of naṣb.
Aṣ-Ṣibaan has said in the chapter about the yaa of the first person singular pronoun, according to the one explaining the point of grammar about هَـذَا رَامِـي, that رَامِـي is in the case of rafʿ by an implied ḍammah on the the letter that precedes the yaa of the first person singular pronoun which is prevented from appearing on letter, because its place is occupied by the sukuun that is required because of assimilation and not because of the weightiness of expression. It would be same even if this wasn’t the case. This is due to the fact that prosody necessitates sukuun in this case with what is stronger than the burdensome vowels, which is the assimilation of the letters.
It would be same even if this weren’t the case, due to the fact that prosody necessitates sukuun in this case, with of what is stronger than burdensome vowels, which is the assimilation of the letters.
As for the dual noun, its alif remains in its condition, like when you say: هَـذَانِ كِتَابَايَ, the yaa of the dual noun, it is assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun like when you say: عَلَّمْتُ وَلَدَىَّ.
If is the sound masculine plural, its waaw [like in the word مُـعَلِّمُــونَ] is converted to a yaa which is assimilate into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun, like when you say: مُـعَلِّمِــيَّ يُـحِبُّونَ أَدَبِـي.
As for its yaa, [like in the word مُـعَلِّمـيــنَ], it is also assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun also. like when you say: أَكْرِمْتُ مُـعَلِّمِـيَّ.
The dual noun and the sound masculine plural noun are inflected when they are in an iḍaafah construction with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun by the letters in the same manner they were inflected before they were put in an iḍaafah construction with it. As you saw.
إعْرَابُ الْـمَحْكِيِّ (The Inflection of The Exact Quotation)
الـحِـكَايَـة (The exact quotation) is the quotation of what you have heard or read. It is the exact quotation of a word or a sentence, and the speech from either of these is repeated exactly as it has been expressed, even if it’s a grammatical mistake and the exact quotation of it is necessary in order to point out the mistake.
الـحِـكَايَـة (The exact quotation) is like when some has said: كَـتَبْتُ يَـعلَمُ (I wrote, “يَـعلَمُ”), meaning I wrote this word.
يَـعلَمُ is normally a present tense verb in the case of rafʿ, and therefore ungoverned by the particles of naṣb and jazm. In the above example يَـعلَمُ is a exact quotation and therefore it is the object of the verb كَـتَبْتُ, but its inflection is implied because the real vowels of inflection cannot appear on a exact quotation.
If you say: كَـتَبَ فِـعْلٌ مَاضِـي, the word كَـتَبَ in this case is a exact quotation, and it is the subject of the sentence in the case of rafʿ by an implied ḍammah which cannot appear on a exact quotation.
If it is said to you give an explanation of the inflection of the word سَـعِيدًا when you have said: رَأَيْـتُ سَـعِيدًا, in turn you say: سَـعِيدًا الْـمَفْعُولُ بِـهِ, you quote the expression exactly in the case of naṣb, even though in your statement سَـعِيدًا is the subject of the sentence and الْـمَفْعُولُ بِـهِ is the predicate, except that سَـعِيدًا has an implied ḍammah at its end, because a vowel of inflection cannot appear at the end of a exact quotation, That is to say, whatever is exactly quoted by you remains fixed in the construction on the way it was quoted.
The word is quoted exactly after من الإستفهامية (man which is used for clarification) if it is not preceded by a conjunction like when you say: رَأَيْتُ خَالِدًا and someone says: مَـن خَـالِـدًا, however if it preceded by a conjunction the exact quotation of it is not permitted, rather you should say: وَمَن خَالِدٌ؟
The sentence that is exactly quoted is like when you say: قُـلْتُ: لاَ إِلـاـه إِلاَّ الله (I said), , سَمِعْتُ:حَيِّ عَلَى الصَّلاةِ (I heard), قَرَأْتُ:قُلْ هُوَ اللهُ أَحَدٌ (I read), كَتَبْتُ:اسْتَقِمْ كَمَا أُمِـرْتَ(I wrote). These sentences are exact quotations standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb due to the verbs that precede them, and therefore they are inflected according to their position in the sentence.
The rule regarding a sentence is that it is fixed in its construction, and if it is governed by a governor, then it is standing in the place of a noun that is either in the case of rafʿ, naṣb or jarr, depending on the governor, unless it can’t be inflected.
إعْرَابُ الْـمَسَمَى بِهِ (The Inflection of a Word That Has Been Given a Name)
When you mention a word that is fixed in its construction, then you should leave it in its case, and its inflection is implied for all three cases.
If you name a man رُبَّ or مَنْ or حَيْثُ, and so you say: جَاء رُبَّ . أَكْرِمْتُ حَيْثُ . أَحْسَنْتُ إِلَـى مَـنْ, the vowels of inflection are implied at the end of them. A vowel of inflection is prohibited from appearing on a word that has a fixed vowel as part of its root construction.
It is similar if you name a sentence like: تَأْبِطَ شَرًا and جَادُ الْـحَقُّ you didn’t change it because of the unusual inflection and so you say: جَاءَ تَأْبِطَ شَرًا . أَكْرِمْتُ جَادَ الْـحَقُّ the inflection of the unusual construction is implied. A vowel of inflection is prohibited from appearing on a word that has a fixed vowel as part of its root construction.
إعْرَابُ الْـمَحَلِّي (The Inflection of a Part of Speech By Virtue of its Location in the Grammatical Construction)
The inflection of a part of speech by virtue of its location in the grammatical construction is a relative change due to the governor that proceeds that part of speech, but this change is neither expressed or implied, because it is found in words fixed in their construction, like when you say: جَاءَ هَؤُلاَءِ التِّلْمِيذُ ، وأَكْرَمْتُ مَنْ تَعَلَّمَ وَأَحْسَنْتُ إِلَى الذِينَ احْتَهَدُوا لَمْ يَنْحَجّنَّ الْكَسْلاَنُ.
It is also found in sentences that are exactly quoted. There has already been a discussion about it. The vowels of inflection do not appear at the end of the fixed construction because they are fixed in a specific case.
When word fixed in its construction is in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm, its case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm is in consideration of its location. It’s inflection is called the inflection of location in view of the fact that the word is standing in the place of a word that would either be in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm. and therefore it is said that the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm is due to the location. That is to say, with respect to its location in the sentence), in as much as if its location is permitted to be inflected in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm.
The particles, the command tense verb, the past tense verb which is not preceded by a conditional sign of the case of jasm, the verbal nouns and the interjections do not have an expressed, implied or locational change at their end, and it is for this reason, it is said, that there is no form of inflection for them.
As for the present tense verb which is fixed in its construction, its inflection which is based on its location is either rafʿ, naṣb or jazm, like when you say: هَـلْ يَكْتُبَنَّ وَيَكْتُبْنَ وَاللهُ لَنْ يَكْتُبَنَّ وَلَنْ يَكْتُبْنَ لَمْ يَكْتُبَنَّ وَلَمْ يَكْتُبْنَ.
As for the past tense verb which is preceded by a conditional sign of the case of jasm, it is in the case of jasm due to its location, like when you say: إِنَ اجْتَهَدَ عَـلِيٌّ اكْرَمَهُ مُعَلِّمُهُ.
There are four kinds of inflectional words: مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (subject), مَسْـدٌ (predicate), فَـضْلَة (The word that is used in addition to words normally used), and أَدَاة (particle).
مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (Subject) and مَسْـدٌ (predicate) have been previously discussed. Each of them is called a support word because it is one of the parts of speech which cannot under any condition stand independently from it, nor is a sentence complete without it. the example of مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (predicate) and مَسْـدٌ (subject) is like when you say: الصِّدْقُ أَمَانَة.
مَسْـدٌ (The predicate) is always a noun, like the word: نَافِعٌ when you say: الْعِلْمُ نَافِعٌ and the verbal noun, like when say: هيَهَاتَ الْـمَزَارُ and a verb: جَاء الْـحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ.
إعْرَابُ الْـمُسْنَدِ إِلَيّهِ (Inflection of the Subject)
The rule for مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (subject) is that it is always in the case of rafʿ if occurs without a governor, like when you say: فَازَ الْـمُجْتَهِدُ . الْـحَقُّ مَـنْصُورُ . كَـانَ عُـمْرُ عَـادِلاً, unless it occurs after the particle إِنَّ and its sisters. As for when that occurs, the rule is that مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (subject) should be in the case of naṣb, like when you say: إِنَّ عُمْرَ عَادِلٌ .
إعْرَابُ الْـمُسْنَدِ (Inflection of the Predicate)
The rule for مَسْـدٌ (predicate) is that it is always in the case of rafʿ also, like when you say: السَّبِقُ فَائِزٌ . إِنَّ الْحَقَّ غَالِبٌ, unless it occurs after the particle كَـانَ and its sisters. As for when that occurs, the rule is that مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (subject) should be in the case of naṣb, like when you say: كَـانَ عَلِيٌّ بَابَ مَدِينَةِ الْعِلْمِ.
If the مَسْـدٌ (predicate) is a past tense verb, then it is always fixed in its construction on the vowel fatḥah, like: انْـتَصَرَ, unless the waaw of the of the third person plural, fixed in its construction on ḍammah is affixed to the end of it, like: انْـتَصَرُوا or when the past tense verb has affixed to its end, a doer pronoun fixed in its construction on sukuun, like: انْـتَصَرْتُ . انْـتَصَرْتُمْ . انْـتَصَرْنَا.
If the مَسْـدٌ (predicate) is a present tense verb, then it is always in the case of rafʿ, like: يَـنْـصُرُ, unless it is preceded by a particle of naṣb, in which case it will be in the case of naṣb, like when you say: لَـنْ تَـبْلُغَ الْـمَجْدَ إِلاَّ بِالْـجِدِّ, or it is preceded by a particle of jazm, in which case it will be in the case of jazm, like when you say: ((لَـمْ يَلدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ)), and if it is preceded by one of the nuuns used for emphasis, it is constructed on fatḥah, like when you say: يَجْتَحِـدْنَ and يَجْتَحِـدَنَّ, or if it is preceded by the nuun of femininity, it is constructed on sukuun, like when you say: الْفَتيَاتُ يَجْتَحِدْنَ.
If the مَسْـدٌ (predicate) is a command tense verb, it is always constructed on sukuun, like: أُكْـتُبْ, unless it is weak at the end, then is fixed in its construction on the dropping of the last letter, like when you say: إِسْـعَ and أَدْعُ and إِمّـشِ, or if the alif of the dual doer or the waaw of the plural doer or yaa of the second person doer is affixed to it, then the command tense verb is constructed with the dropping of nuun, like when you say: أُكْـتُبَا and أُكْـتُبُوا and أُكْـتُبِي.
الْفَضْلَةُ وَإعْرَابُهَا (The Additional/Surplus Word in a Sentence and the Inflection of It )
الْـفَـضْلَة (The word that is used in addition to the words normally used) is any noun that is used to complete the meaning of a sentence, and it is not a principle or support word for the sentence. That is to say, it is not مَسْـدٌ (predicate) or مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (subject), like أُكْـتُبْ when you say: آَرْشَـدَ الأَنبِيَاءُ النَّاسَ, and so آَرْشَـدَ is مَسْـدٌ (predicate) and الأَنبِيَاءُ is مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (subject) and النَّاسَ is الْـفَـضْلَة (the word that is used in addition to words normally used). That is because النَّاسَ is noun that is used to complete the meaning of a sentence. This type of noun is referred to as الْـفَـضْلَة (the additional word), because it is an increase of a word to مَسْـدٌ (predicate) or مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (subject). In the Arabic language الْـفَـضْل (surplus /additional amount) means الزِّيَادَة (increase/ addition/more than what is needed).
The rule in regards to الْـفَـضْلَة is that it is always in the case of naṣb when it occurs, like when you say: يَحْتَرَمُ النَّاسُ العُلَمَاءَ . أَحْسَنْتُ إِحْسَانًا . طَلَعْتُ الشَّمْسُ صَفِيَةً . جَاءَ التَّلاَمِيذُ إِلاّ عَلِيًّا . سَفَرْتُ يَوْمَ الْـخَمِيسِ . وَجَلَسْتُ أَمَامَ الْـمِنْـمبَرِ . وَقَفَ النَّاسُ احْتِرَامًا لِلعُلَمَاءِ, unless it occurs after the particle of jarr or as the second member of an iḍaafah construction, then the rule is that الْـفَـضْلَة is in the case of jarr, like when you say: كَتَبْتُ بِالْقَلَمِ and قَرَأْتُ كَُتُبَ التَّارِيخِ.
A noun is not permitted to be both فـضْلَة (a surplus word) and عْـمْدَة (a support word). However, it is permitted to be in the case of rafʿ and naṣb, like in the case when الْـمُستَثْنَى (the exclude now) is part of a negative statement in whichالْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which another noun is excluded) has been mentioned like when you say:مَـا جَـاءَ أَحَـدٌ إِلاَّ سَـعِيدٌ وَإِلاِ سَـعِيدًا. If you take in to account the meaning of this sentence, you could put what comes after إِلاَّ in the case of rafʿ, in order to trace it back to the action, because there is no arriver if it is traced back to أَحَـدٌ. The arrival is traced to the noun سَـعِيد and connected to it. If you consider the expression another time, you can also put سَـعِيد in the case of naṣb, because when it is expressed it is also فَـضْلَة (a surplus word), because the sentence has a subject and predicate without it.
If الْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is mentioned and the statement is affirmative, then the noun that comes after إِلاَّ must be in the case of naṣb, because it is فَـضْلَة (an additional word), like when you say: جَـاءَ الْقَوْمُ إِلاَّ سَـعِيدًا.
If الْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is dropped from the statement, it should be put in the case of rafʿ, like when you say: مَـا جَـاءَ إِلاَّ سَـعِيدٌ, because it is مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (subject), and it should be put in the case of naṣb, like when you say: مَـا رَأَيْتُ إِلاَّ سَـعِيدًا, because it is فَـضْلَة (a additional word), and it should be put in the case of jarr like when you say: مَـا مَرَرْتُ إِلاَّ بِسَـعِيدٍ, because it is occurs after a particle of jarr.
الأَدَاة (The Auxiliary Particle)
الأَدَاة (The auxiliary particle) is a word which is inserted between two parts of a sentence or between the parts and الْـفَـضْلَة (additional words) or between two sentences, like the conditional particle, the interrogative particle, particle of specification, particle of desire, particle of hope/anticipation, the particles that cause the present verb to be in the cases of of naṣb and jazm, and the particles of jarr and others.
The rule for الأَدَاة (the auxiliary particle) is that its end stays in one condition, because it is fixed in its construction at the end.
When الأَدَاة (the auxiliary particle) it is a noun, it can be the مَسْـدٌ إِلَـيْهِ (a subject), like when you say: مَـنْ مُجْتَهِـدٌ؟, and it can be the مَسْـدٌ (predicate) like when you say: خَـيْرُ مَالِـكِ مَا أَنْفَقْتَهُ فِي سَـبِيل الْمُصْلَحَة الْعامَة, and it can be فَـضْلَة (an additional word), like when you say: احْترِمِ الَّذِي يَطْلُبُ الْعِلمَ، اتق شَرَّ مَنْ أَحْسَنْتَ إِلَيْهِ.
Sometimes, the inflection ofالأَدَاة (the auxiliary particle) is the case of rafʿ, naṣb and jarr due to its location in the sentence.
Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection) and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)