Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

 بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ 

18 – (The Chapter About harfu-z-Zamaan  [The Adverb Of Time] and harfu-l-Makaan  [The Adverb Of Place])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فيِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَبُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَسَحَرًا وَغَدًا وَعَتَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَصَبَاحًا وَمَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبَدًا وَأَمَدًا وَحِينًا وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَا وَثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (The adverb of time) هُوَ (is) اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (the noun of time) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied) –  (like when you say): الْيَوْمَ (today) وَاللَّيْلَةَ and (tonight) وَغُدْوَةً and (in the morning) وَبُكْرَةً and (at dawn) وَسَحَرًا and (at dawn) وَغَدًا and (tomorrow) وَعَتَمًا and (in the first third of the night) وَصَبَاحًا and (in the morning) وَمَسَاءً and (in the evening) وَأَبَدًا and (always / never) وَأَمَدًا and (briefly) وَحِينًا and (sometimes) وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).

وَظَـــرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَـــانِ‏‮ ‬‬ (And the adverb of place) هُو (is)   اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ the noun of location) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬في (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied)  – like when you say: أَمَامَ (across from / in front of) وَخَلْفَ and (behind), وَقُدَّامَ and (in front of)  وَوَرَاءَ and (behind) وَفَوْقَ and (above) وَتَحْتَ and (below) وَعِنْدَ and (with) وَمَعَ and (with) وَإِزَاءَ and (face to face / opposite someone or something) وَحِذَاءَ and (opposite / face to face with) وَتِلْقَاءَ and (opposite /in  front  of) وَهُنَــا  and  (here) ‏‮ ‬‬وَثَـــمَّand  (there)  وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك (and what is similar to these).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هما الإسمان الـمنصوبان الواقع فيهما الفعل متضمِّنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها كقولك خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَآءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬فيوم وورآء مفعول فيهما لأنّه قد وقع فيهما الفعل وهو الخروج والـمشِي‏‮ ‬‬وكلاهما متضمّن معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون‏‮  ‬‬لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬اليوم والورآء ومثل جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬وقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـاءً‏‮ ‬‬وجَـلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ‏‮ ‬‬إلى آخره‏‮ ‬‬

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان هو الإسم الدّالّ‏‮ ‬‬على الزّمان نحو الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬واللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وبُكْرَةً وسَحَرًا وغَدًا وعَتَمًا وصَبَاحًا ومَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وأَبَدًا وأَمَدًا ووَقْتًآ وحِينًا وما أشبه ذلك فهذه‏‮  ‬‬جميعًا تُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬على الظَّرْفيَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬تقول أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬

وظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هو الاسم الدّال على الـمكان نحو أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وخَــلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُنَا وثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا أشبه ذلك تقول جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬أو حِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو أو تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وقس الباقي

Explanation of Text in English:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ  (the adverb of time and the adverb of place) are the nouns in the case of naṣb wherein their verb [is expressed] with an implied meaning  [which includes] the preposition  فِي   –  like when you say: خَرَجْــــتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَـوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيــــدِ  (I  left  on  the  feast  day) and  مَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ (I walked behind the people); and so يَوْمَ and وَرَاءَ are adverbial objects for both of the verbs  (خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ and مَشَيْتُ), because the action falls on both of these objects which is the action of  الْـخُرُوجُ (leaving) and the action of الْـمَشِي (walking).  Both contain the meaning of the preposition فِي without the expression of it, because it is implied by الْيوْمَ and الْوَرَاءَ.  Similar examples are: جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬(I came today and I am leaving tomorrow), قُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـآءً (I arose in the morning and slept in the evening), جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ (I sat across from you and I stood in front of you) and so forth

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان (the adverb of time) is the noun which demonstrates time  – like when you say: الْيَوْمَ (today), اللَّيْلَةَ (tonight), غُدْوَةً (in the morning), بُكْرَةً (at dawn), سَحَرًا (at dawn), غَدًا (tomorrow/on the morrow), عَتَمًا (in the first third of the night), صَبَاحًا (in the morning), مَسَاءً (in the evening), أَبَدًا (always / never), أَمَدًا (briefly), and حِينًا (sometimes) and what is similar to these.  All of these nouns are in the case of naṣb because they are in the adverbial condition.  And so you say:‏‮ ‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً (I came in the day and left in the evening).

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان (the adverb of place) is the noun which demonstrates location  – like when you say:  أَمَــــامَ (across from / in front of), خَلْفَ (behind), قُدَّامَ (in front of), وَرَاءَ (behind), فَوْقَ (above), تَحْتَ (below), عِنْدَ (with), مَعَ (with), إِزَاءَ (face to face / opposite someone or something), حِذَاءَ (opposite / face to face with), تِلْقَاء (opposite / in front of), هُنَا (here),‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَّ (there) and what is similar to these.  And so you say: جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat across from Zayd) and حِذَا عَمْرٍو (opposite ʿAmr) and تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ (in front of the house).  The rest of the adverbs of time are use in a similar manner.

(*note in ʿArabic)

الظرف هو الـمسمَّى الـمفعول فيه أيضًا فهو الـمـنصوب الواقع فيه الفعل متضمنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها فهكذا قلنا ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان‏‮ ((‬‬منصوب على تقدير في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها‏‮)) ‬‬لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬معنى قولك أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيوْمَ‏‮ ((‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ‏‮))‬‬ ومعنى قولك جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ((‬‬جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرِيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ‏‮)) ‬‬فلو لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن على معني‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬نحو انْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬أو كانت‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬ظاهرةً‏‮ ‬‬نحو أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬كان الأوّل منصوبًا على انه مفعولٌ‏‮ ‬‬به والثَّانِي‏‮ ‬‬مجرورًا بالحرف‏‮   ‬‬

(*note in English)

الظَّرْفُ (The adverb) is also known as الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ (the adverbial object).  It is the noun in the case of naṣb upon which the action of the verb falls and implies the meaning of the preposition فِي (in) without expressing it. Therefore, we  have  said, “ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِِ (the adverb of time) and ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِِِ (the adverb of place) are in the case of naṣb because of the implication of [the harf] فِي”. It means that what is being implied is the prepositions فِي (in) without it being expressed, because when you say: أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ (I came today) what you mean is أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ (I came in the day) and when you say:  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat with Zayd) what you mean is  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرَيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ (I sat in a place near him).  The preposition فِي is not implied however, if you say: أَنْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ (I await the day of ‘Iid)  or when the word فِي comes in (a sentence) like:أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬(I came in the morning). The word يَوْمَ in the first example is in the case of naṣb because it is the object of the verb and the word الصَّبَاحِ in the second example in the case of khafḍ because it is the object of the preposition.

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 –  الْـمُرَكَّبَات (The Composite Structures),‮ ‬وَأًَنْوَاعُهَا (The Various Kinds) and إِعَرَابُهَا (The Ways They Are Inflected)

The composite structure consist of two or more words for the purpose of conveying information whether that information is complete or not1.

There are six kinds of composite structures in Arabic:

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ ‬أَوِ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ ‬(The Supportive Composite Structure)2 ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬(or the Sentence)

الإسْـنَادِي is the composite construct in which one phrase is supported by another.

الإسْـنَاد is the composite construct in which one phrase is used to make a judgement observation or statement about another, like حكم علي‮ ‬زهير بالإجْـتِهَاد the observation or statement that Zuhayr has the skill of independent judgement].، when you say: زُهَـيْرٌ‮ ‬مُجْتَهِـدٌ‮ ‬ (Zuhayr is a mujtahid [has the skill of independent judgement]).

The judgement or observation that is made about a person, place, thing or idea being judged is called الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate).

The person, place, thing or idea being judged, or observed is called الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْـنَادِي is also called الْـجُـمْلَة ‘the sentence’, and it consists of مُـسنَدٌ (a predicate) and مُسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ (subject), like when you say: الْـحُلْمُ‮ ‬زيْنٌ‮ ‬ (The dream is beautiful) and يُـفْلِحُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬(The mujtahid is successful).  الْـحُـلْمُ (The dream) is مُـسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ and زيْـنٌ (beautiful) has been ascribed to it.  ‬الْـحُـلْمُ has been judged to be beautiful. and therefore زيْـنٌ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) for الْـحُـلْمُ.

Likewise, فلاح‮ ‬ (success) has been ascribed to الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬ (The mujtahid. Therefore, يُـفْلِحُ isمَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) and الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ is مُسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ ( a subject).

الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject) can be الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun), نَـائِـبُهُ (the noun standing in the place of the doer), الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun), اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb), اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa), اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا (the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters), اسْم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing).

The example of الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun) is like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬وَزَهَقَ‮ ‬البَاطِلُ‮ ‬ (The truth came and falsehood died). الْـحَقُّ and البَاطِلُ are  الْفَاعِلان (the doer nouns).

The example of  نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer) is like when you say: يُعَاقِـبُ‮ ‬الْـعَاصُـون وَيُـثَابُ‮ ‬الطَّائِـعونَ‮ ‬ (Those who are sinful are punished, and those who are obedient are rewarded). الطَّائِـعونَ and الْـعَاصُـون are نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer).

The example of  الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun) is like when you say: الصَّبْرُ‮ ‬مِـفْتَاحُ‮ ‬الْفَرَحِِ‮ ‬(Patience is the key to happiness).

The example of  اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb) is like when you say:  كَانَ‮ ‬الله عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا‮ ‬ (Allah is All Knowing and Wise).

The example of اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa) is like when you say: مَـا زُبَـيرٌ‮ ‬كَسُولاً‮ ‬ (Zubayr is not lazy) and تَعِزُّ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬شَيْءٌ‮ ‬عَلَى الأَرْضِ‮ ‬بَاقِيًا‮ ‬ and‮ ‬لاَتَ‮ ‬سَاعَةَ‮ ‬مَنْدَمِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬إِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٌ‮ ‬خَيْرًا مِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٍ‮  ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِالْعِلمِ‮ ‬وَالْعِلْمِ‮ ‬الصَّالِحِ

The example of ‮ ‬ اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا(the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters)‮‬ is like when you say:‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬عَـلِيمٌ‮ ‬بِـدَاتِ‮ ‬الصُّدُورِ‮ ‬ (Surely Allah knows what is inside of  the hearts).

The example of  اسْـم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing) is like when you say: لاَ‮ ‬إِلــاـهَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللُهَ.

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) can be الْفِعْلِ (the verb) and اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ (the noun of the verb) andخُبْرُ‮ ‬الْـمُبْتَدَأِ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the subject)‮ ‬and‮ ‬خَبْرُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِصِ‮ ‬(the predicate of the defective verb)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬الاحْـرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَـمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particles that functions like the verb laysa)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْـوَاتِـهَا‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters).

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) is الْفِعْلِ (the verb) like when you say: قَدْ‮ ‬أَفْـلَحَ‮ ‬الْـمُؤْمِنِينَ, (The believers are successful), and the predicate is characteristics which are derived from the verb like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬أأَبْـلَجُ‮ ‬(the truth clear/apparent), and الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬(The predicate) is  also a defective noun which has the meaning of derived characteristics  like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬نُـورٌ‮ ‬(The truth is light) and الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is a lion). The meaning of the first example is that الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬مُـضِيءٌ‮ ‬(The truth is bright/luminous), while the  meaning of the second example is that الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬شُجَاعٌ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is like a lion).

الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic Speech)3

Arabic speech is an informative sentence that gives the listener complete information by itself.  like when you say: رَأْسُ الْحِكْمَةِ مَخَافَةُ اللهِ‮ ‬ (The highest wisdom is fear of Allah), and فَازَ الْـمُتَّقُونَ ‬(The believers were victorious), and   مَنْ صَدَقَ نَجَا‮ ‬ (He who is truthful is will be saved)

If the sentence structure does not convey complete meaning or information to the listener by itself, then it can’t be called الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic speech), for example: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge). This is a sentence structure that doesn’t convey completely informative, because the result of this conditional clause has not been expressed nor is it known. Therefore as previously mentioned, it cannot be called Arabic speech. However, if the result of the conditional statement is expressed, like when you say: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ‮ ‬تَنْجـَحْ‮ ‬ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge, you will succeed), then it becomes كَلاَم (Arabic speech).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬ (The Construction Which Consist of the Iḍaafah[the Adjoin/Prefixed Nouns])

‮  ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِـي‮ ‬( The Iḍaafah  Construction Composite) is the structure which consist of الـْـمُضَاف‮ ‬(The Adjoined/Prefixed Noun) and الـْـمُضَاف إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(The Noun Adjoined/Prefixed to It), like when you say: كِتَابُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬خَاتِـمُ‮ ‬فِصَّةٍ‮ ‬صَوْمُ‮ ‬النِّهَارِ. The for the second member of the iḍaafah construction is that it is always in the case of jarr.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬ ( The Composite Structure Which Clarifies the Characteristics of the Noun)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـبَيَانِـي‮ ‬(The composite structure which clarifies the characteristics of the noun consist every of two words; the first one is characterized by the second. This construction is of three kinds:

1. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬وَصْـفِيٌّ (an adjectival composite structure) – It consists of السِّفةُ (the adjective) and الْـمَوْصُـوف (the noun it describes/modifies), like when you say: فَـازَ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذَ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدَ‮ . ‬طَلَبْتُ‮ ‬أَخْلاَقِ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذِ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدِ

2. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬تَـوْكِـيدِيٌّ (a composite structure used to emphasize the noun) – It consist of الْـمُؤَكَّدُ (the emphasized noun) and الْـمُؤَكِّدُ (the noun that is used to emphasize) it, like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْقَومُ‮ ‬كُلُّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬الْقَومَ‮ ‬كُلَّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى الْقَومِ‮ ‬كُلِّهُمْ

3. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) – It is a structure that consist of‮ ‬الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) and الْـمُبْدَلُ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ‮ ‬(the noun that has been replaced by it [the substitute noun]), like when you say:  جَاءَ‮ ‬خَلِيلٌ‮ ‬أَخُوكَ‮ . ‬رَأَيْت خَلِيلاً‮ ‬أَخَاكَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬بِخَلِيلٍ‮ ‬أَخِيكَ‮.‬

The rule for the second noun of مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) is that it follows the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬ (The Conjunctive Composite Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure) consists of الـْـمَعْطُوفِ (the noun that has been joined) and الـْمَعْطُوفِ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ (the noun that has been joined to it) by placing عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) between them, like when you say:  يَنَالُ‮ ‬التِلْمِيذُ‮ ‬والتِّلمِيذَةِ‮ ‬الْـحَمْدَ‮ ‬وَالثَّنَاءَ‮ ‬إِذَا ثَابِرًا عَـلَى الدَّرْسِ‮ ‬وَالإِجْـتِهَادِ.‮ ‬The rule for الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure)  is that the now that comes after عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) follows  the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬ (The Composite Compound Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure) is two words that are constructed as one, like: بَـعْلَبَكَّ (Baalbek), ‮ ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم (Bethlehem),  حَـضْرَمَـوْت‮ ‬(Haḍramut), سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬(Sibawayhi), صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬(morning and evening), شَـدَرَ‮ ‬مَـدَرَ (dispersed/went in every direction).

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a definite noun, then  it is pronounced without vowel ending, like when you say: بَـعْلَبَكّ‮ ‬بُـلْدَةٌ‮ ‬طَـيِّبَة الْـهَوَاءَ‮ ‬.‮ ‬سكَنْتُ‮  ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم‮ ‬.‮ ‬سَـافَرْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى حَـضْرَمَـوْت, unless the second part of the compound word is the word وَيْـهِ, in which case, it is always fixed in its construction at the end on kasrah, like when you say: سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِمٌ‮ ‬كَبِيرٌ‮ .‬ رَأَيْتُ سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِـمًا كَبِيرًا‮ ‬.‮ ‬قَرأْتُ‮ ‬كِتَابَ‮ ‬سِـبَوَيْـهِ.

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a indefinite noun, then both words are fixed in their construction at the end on fatḥah, like when you say: زُرْنِي‮ ‬صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬أَنْتَ‮ ‬جَاررِي‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮.‬‮ ‬

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي‮ ‬ (The Numerical Composite)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) are compound structured compound structured composites. They are every two numbers which has an implied conjunction between them, and they are the cardinal numbers: 11-19, and the ordinal numbers: 11th (eleventh) -19th (nineteenth).

As for 21-99, they are not among الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيَّةُ‮ ‬(the numerical composites), because the conjunction is expressed, rather they are الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِيَّة‮ ‬(conjunctive composite structures).

It is necessary that both parts of الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) be affixed with fatḥah at the end, even if it is in the case of raf, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, ‮ ‬or in the case of naṣb, like when you say:  رَأَيْـتُ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬كَـوْكَـبًا, ‮ ‬or in the case of jarr ‮ ‬like when you say:‮ ‬أَحْـسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلى أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرًا, or sometime both of  its parts are fixed in their construction on fatḥah and standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ, naṣb of jarr, except إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ. In this case, the first part is inflected with alif of the dual form like when you say:  جَـاءَ‮ ‬إثْـنَا عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, and it is the cases of  naṣb and jarr with yaa of the dual form like when you say:  أَكْـرَمْـتُ‮ ‬إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرَةً‮ ‬بِإثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬دِرْهَـمًا. The second part of this numerical construct is fixed in its construction with fatḥah at the end. There is no situation in which it is inflected, and of course the nuun has been dropped from the dual form of the first part.

There is no number in which number العشَـرَة (ten) is formed from the noun pattern (فاعل). This noun pattern is used to form first part of the ordinal numbers الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬(eleventh) to الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ (nineteenth). Both parts of these number are fixed in their construction on fatḥah at the end, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَةَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ‮ ‬and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـخَامِسَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ. This is the rule, unless the first part of the ordinal number composite ends with yaa. In that case, the first part of the numerical composite should be fixed in its construction on sukuun, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬ and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ.

حُكْمُ‮ ‬الْعَدَدُ‮ ‬مَعَ‮ ‬الْـمَعْدود‮ ‬ (The Rules for the Number  and the Enumerated Noun)

If the number is وَاحد (one)  or  إثْـنَيْـن (two), then the rule is that the masculine noun is enumerated with  the masculine number, and the feminine noun is enumerated  with the feminine number, like when you say: رَجُـلٌ‮ ‬وَاحِـدٌ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةٌ‮ ‬وَاحِدَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬رَجُـلَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَانِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَتَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَتَانِ.

If the numbers are from الثلاثة (three) to العشَـرَة (ten), then the masculine noun is enumerated with the feminine number, and the feminine is enumerated with the masculine number, like when you say: ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬أَقْلاَمٍ‮ ‬for the masculine and وَثَلاَثُ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬أَيَدٍ‮ ‬for the feminine.

This is unless the number ten is part of a numerical composite. In that case, the number ten should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, then you say: ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عشرَةَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةًfor the feminine.

If a number is formed on the noun pattern (فاعل), then it should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, whether or not the number is alone or part of a numerical composite, like when you say: : الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعُ‮ ‬for the masculine‮ ‬and‮ ‬الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬الْعَاشِرَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬التَّاسِعةَ‮ ‬عَشْرَةَ‮ ‬for the feminine.

The sheen in the words عشرة and عشر carry fatḥah when it enumerates a masculine noun and sukuun when it enumerates a feminine noun, and so you should say: عَشَرَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬وَأَحَدَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and وَ‮ ‬عَشْرَ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬إِحْدَى عَشْرَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةً‮ ‬for the feminine.

Footnotes:

1 The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can be الْـجُمْلَةُ نَاقِصة الإِفَادَةِ (the sentence structure/clause which doesn’t convey complete information), can consist of any kind of subordinate clause / dependent clause which does not express a complete thought or idea, and therefore can’t stand alone), The example of this is when you express الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the conditional statement) without completing your speech with جَوَابُ‮ ‬الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the result of the conditional statement), like when you say: إِذَا جَاءَ‮ ‬إِلَى بَيْتِي‮ ‬ (If he comes to my house …).

 The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can also be a phrase, like: جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase), عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة (adverbial phrase), عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase),  فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb),   بَدَلٌ ومُبْدَل (appositive phrase), عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase), صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase) or‮ ‬وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction)  مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ the emphasizing word and the emphasized word), مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word),مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (the numerical structure),عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated).

جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase) is like when you say: فِي‮ ‬الْبَيْت (in the house)

عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة  (adverbial phrase) is like when you say:  وَرَاءُ‮ ‬الْـمَسْجِد (behind the masjid)

عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase) is like when you say:أَخَذَ‮ ‬يَضْرِبُ (He began to beat)

فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb) is like when you say: جَاء بِـ (He brought)

عِبَارة مِن الْبدَل (appositive phrase) is like when you say: الأُسْتَاذُ‮ ‬خَالِدٌ (professor Khālid) or خَالِدٌ‮ ‬،‮ ‬أُسْتَاذُنَا‮ ‬ (Khālid, our professor)

عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  وَالرَّجُلُ (and the man)

صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  الدَّارُ‮ ‬الْبَيْدضَاءُ (the white house)

‮ ‬مُـصَاف وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction) is like when you say: وَلِيُّ‮ ‬اللَّه (the friend of Allah)

مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ (emphasizing word and an emphasized word) is like when you say:  القَومُ ، كُلُّهُم

مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word)  is like when you say: بَعْلَبَكّ (Baalbek),  بَيْتَ لَحْم (Bethlehem)

,مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (numerical structure) is any number from أحَدَ عَشَرَ to  تِِِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ

عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated) is like when you say: رَجُلٌ وَاحِدٌ

2 The composite structure which conveys complete information is called الْـمُوَكَّب الإِسْنَادِي (the composite structure which consist of a person or thing that is the subject of discussion and things that are said about him or it.).  This composite structure is also called الْـجُـمْلَة‮ ‬(the sentence [a group of words joined together to express a complete thought]).  It is for this reason the grammarian Ibn Ājurruum, the author of ‘al Ajurruumiyyah’ has said:

3اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬ (Speech is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules).

The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules.  Undoubtedly, Arabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَـفْظـًا (expressed), مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that Arabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (Alī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of‮ ‬الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مُـرَكَّبًا , Arabic speech is composed of two or more words – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏ ‬(Abdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say: ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ   (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the Arabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَـبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَـذْهَـبُ (he is going), and the ‏ ‬فِعْلُ‏ ‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs – wherein the purpose of a word is not completely understood until one of these expressions is  placed next to the word.  They are like when you say: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ. So when you say: هَـلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ‮ ‬(did he go) and مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ‮ ‬(from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏ ‬

And so, الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have regulated with conventional Arabic rules.

تَنْبِيهA Further Note:

We have said that الكلام (speech) according to the Arabic grammarians is  constructed on four things.   They are that it is لفظًا (expressed), مركّـبًا (composite [composed of two or more parts]), مفيدًا ( informative), and موضوعًـا بالوضع العربي (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).

The view which is held by the linguist concerning الكلام (speech) departs from the view which we have said is held by the grammarians about it.  In the view of the linguist, الكلام (speech) can be one word by itself – like: زَيْـدٌ or more than one word like: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ; or whatever causes understanding whether it expressed or not – like what is written; or الكلام (speech) can be what is indicated by way of motion or gesture.  Something indicated by way of motion or gesture is like when I say to you: أَوَصَـلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْـسًًا (Did you arrive yesterday?) and you nod your head up and down to me and so, it is understood by me that you are saying نَعَمْ (Yes).

The view of the the fuquhaa’ concerning الكلام (speech) also departs from the view of the grammarian.  In the view of the fuquhaa’, الكلام (speech) is what nullifies the salaat [because of the utterance of]  a letter that is understood  [which does not belong in the salaat] – like (the letter qaaf – ق) or (ayn – ع) or two letters like: من and عن even if they are not understood, [the salaat is still nullified].

The view of the mutakallimuun, that is to say the scholars of tawhiid also depart from that of the grammarians concerning الكلام (speech).  In the view of the mutakallimuun, الكلام (speech) is an expression about the meaning established by Allah which is voided of any letter or sound. .Allah has said in His Noble Book:

“It is He Who has sent down the Book to you from Himself with verses (ayāts) that are clear and these are the foundation of the Book while others are not so clear.” 3:6

Allah then says in the same (chapter and verse) concerning these ayāts:

”And  no ones knows their explanation except Allah.” 3:6

Therefore, in the view of the mutakallimun, their explanation exist with Allah as الكلام (speech), even though He سبحان و تعالى has chosen not to reveal to us a  verse, a single letter or a single sound concerning it.

 
 

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


الْـمَخَارِج (The Places of Exit for The Letters) وَالصِّفَات (And The Characteristics of The Letters)

الْـمَخَارِج‮ ‬(The Places of Exit for The Letters) وَالصِّفَات (And The Characteristics of The Letters)

الْـمَخَْـرَِج (plural الْـمَخَارِج) is the place from where الحرف (the letter) exits.  For example, if you say اِبْ, you will find that the last of what you vocalized was the letter ب.  It exited from the lips after they separated.  Therefore, مَخَْـرَِج الْبَاء (the place from where the letter ب exits are the lips.  If you say اِقْ, you will find that the last of what you vocalized was the letter ق.  It exits from the back of the tongue and upper palate near the uvula after the separation of the two them and it is on the palate.  Thus مَخَْـرَِج الْقَاف (the place of exit of ق is the back of the tongue and the upper palate.  Every person who has the natural ability should be able to arrive at knowing  الْـمَخَْـرَِج of any letter if he applies this method of placing hamzah bearing kasrah =إِ or fathah =أ in front of the letter being vocalized.  Wherever the vocalization ends, it will be considered الْـمَخَْـرَِج for the letter.  The ʿulamaa’ (scholars) of the language and masters of the science of التَّجْويد (The most correct articulation on letters and words from the Noble Qur’an) have followed this method and they have found that الْـمَخَْـرَِج of every correctly pronounced letter either originates: in the throat, on the tongue, or on the lips and is articulated from every part of these places.  They have also found that the two other areas of الْـمَخَْـرَِج are الْـجوْف (the center of the chest) in the articulationأحْرُفُ‮ ‬الْـمَدِّ (the letters of the long vowels) and الْـخَيْشُوم (the nose) in the articulation of الْـغُنَّة (nasalized letters).  They gave each group of letters a name that would assist in understanding there مَخَْـرَِج as a whole and in sections.

الْـمَخَارِج‮ ‬(The Places of Exit for The Letters) وَالصِّفَات (And The Characteristics of The Letters)

الْـمَخَْـرَِج (plural الْـمَخَارِج) is the place from where الحرف (the letter) exits.  For example, if you say اِبْ, you will find that the last of what you vocalized was the letter ب.  It exited from the lips after they separated.  Therefore, مَخَْـرَِج الْبَاء (the place from where the letter ب exits are the lips.  If you say اِقْ, you will find that the last of what you vocalized was the letter ق.  It exits from the back of the tongue and upper palate near the uvula after the separation of the two them and it is on the palate.  Thus مَخَْـرَِج الْقَاف (the place of exit of ق is the back of the tongue and the upper palate.  Every person who has the natural ability should be able to arrive at knowing  الْـمَخَْـرَِج of any letter if he applies this method of placing hamzah bearing kasrah =إِ or fathah =أ in front of the letter being vocalized.  Wherever the vocalization ends, it will be considered الْـمَخَْـرَِج for the letter.  The ʿulamaa’ (scholars) of the language and masters of the science of التَّجْويد (The most correct articulation on letters and words from the Noble Qur’an) have followed this method and they have found that الْـمَخَْـرَِج of every correctly pronounced letter either originates: in the throat, on the tongue, or on the lips and is articulated from every part of these places.  They have also found that the two other areas of الْـمَخَْـرَِج are الْـجوْف (the center of the chest) in the articulationأحْرُفُ‮ ‬الْـمَدِّ (the letters of the long vowels) and الْـخَيْشُوم (the nose) in the articulation of الْـغُنَّة (nasalized letters).  They gave each group of letters a name that would assist in understanding there مَخَْـرَِج as a whole and in sections.

الْـمَخَارِج (The Places of Exit for The Letters) وَالصِّفَات (And The Characteristics of The Letters)

الاحرف (The letters) are divided into three groups:  أَحْرُفُ‮  ‬ُالْـحَلْق (letters of the throat), أحْرُفُ‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (the letters of the tongue) and‮ ‬الأَحْرُفُ‮ ‬الشَّفَوِيَّةِ (the letters of the lips).

Section 1 – أَحْرُفُ‮  ‬ُالْـحَلْق (The Letters Of The Throat)

They are called أَحْرُفُ‮  ‬ُالْـحَلْق‮ ‬because their مَخَارَِج is located in الْـحَلْق (the throat).  The places of exit in the throat have been divided by the scholars of التجويد (the science of reading the Qur’an) into three sections:

1. الأَدْنَا (the near [upper] part of the throat)

2. الْوَسَط (the middle part of the throat)

3. الأَقًْصى (the far [lower] part of the throat)

There are six أَحْرُفُ‮ ‬الْـحَلْق.  They are the following letters:

خ and غ – Their مَخَْـرَِج is in أَدْنَا الْـحَـلْق (the upper part of the throat).  The خ is close to the top of the throat and the غ is nearer to the middle part of the throat.

ح and ع – Their مَخَْـرَِج is inوَسَطُ‮ ‬الْـحَلْق (the middle part of the throat).  The مَخَْـرَِج of ح is close to that of غ while the مَخَْـرَِج of ع is close to the مَخَْـرَِج of هـ.

هـ and ء – Their مَخَْـرَِج is in أَقًْصَا‮ ‬الْـحَلْق (the lower part of the throat).  The مَخَْـرَِج of هـ is close to the middle of the throat above the مَخَْـرَِج of ء and the مَخَْـرَِج of ء is in the chest.

Section 2 – أحْرُفُ‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (The Letters Of The Tongue)

Their  مَخَْـرَِج is on the tongue.  The places of exit on the tongue have been divided by the scholars of التجويد ( the rules of reading the Quræan) into four sections:

1. رَأْسُ‮ ‬‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (the front of the tongue)

2. وَسَطُ‮ ‬‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (the middle of the tongue)

3. حَافَةُ‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (the edge of the tongue)

4. أَقًْصَا اللِّسَانِ (the back of the tongue)

There are eighteen  أحْرُفُ‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ.  They are the following letters:

ق and ك – The مَخَْـرَِج of ق is at the back of the tongue near the throat opposite the upper palate, that is to say, the roof of the mouth.  The مَخَْـرَِج of ك is below the مَخَْـرَِج of ق .ق is closer to the throat than ك.

‮ ‬ق and ك are known as الْحَرْفَانُ‮ ‬الهَوِيَّتَان‮ ‬(the velar letters). Velar letters are letters which are articulated with the back of the tongue touching or near the soft palate.

Their  مَخَْـرَِج is in the middle of the tongue opposite the upper palate.  As for ج, its مَخَْـرَِج is near the  مَخَْـرَِج of ك.  The مَخَْـرَِج of ي is near the front of the mouth.  the  مَخَْـرَِج of ش is found between the  مَخَْـرَِج of ج and the مَخَْـرَِج of ي.

The ‮ ‬مَخَْـرَِج of ي , ش  ,  ج is known as الْـحُرُوف الشَّجْرِيَّة.

ض – The  مَخَْـرَِج of ض is on the left or right edge of the tongue opposite the upper molar teeth along the length of its extreme edge almost to the end of it.  ض is حَـرْفٌ‮ ‬مُسْتَطِيلٌ‮ ‬ (an elongated letter). That is to say, it is lengthened in its articulation.

ل – The مَخَْـرَِج of ل is at the front of the tongue and close to one of the two edges.  Its مَخَْـرَِج is found at the place on the tongue where its front edge stands opposite the upper palate. That is to say, near the eye and incisor teeth.

ر – Similarly, its مَخَْـرَِج is at the front of the tongue except that the مَخَْـرَِج of ر comes in contact with the underside of the tongue slightly.

ن – The مَخَْـرَِج of the ن which is pronounced إِظْهَارًا (clearly),  That is to say the

ن‮ ‬is pronounced without إدْغَام (assimilation) , إخْـفَاء (suppression) or أَقلاَب (conversion)  is at the front of the tongue and above the two upper incisor teeth and a little beneath the مَخَْـرَِج of‮ ‬ل.‮ ‬

ر‮ ‬, ل, and ن are  known as حُرُوفُ‮ ‬الذُّلْـفِيَّة (the letters pronounced with the tip of the tongue).

د‮ ‬, ت and ط – The مَخَْـرَِج of د‮ ‬, ت and ط is at the front of the tongue near its underside of the tongue and the roots of the upper incisor teeth towards the palate.   د‮ ‬, ت and ط are known as حُرُوفُ‮ ‬النِّطْعِيَّة (the palatal letters).

س, ز and ص – The مَخَْـرَِج of س, ز and ص is at the front of the tongue and at the inside of the upper incisor teeth with a small amount of separation.  س, ز and ص are known as الْـحُروفُ‮ ‬الأَسْلِيَّة‮ ‬ (the letters of the tip of the tongue).

ذ‮ ‬,ث and ظ – The مَخَْـرَِج of ظ is at front of the tongue at the edge of the upper incisor teeth while the مَخَْـرَِج of ث‮ ‬,ذ is at the front of the tongue and some what dangle from the tip of the tongue.

Section 3 – الأَحْرُفُ‮ ‬الشَّفَوِيَّةِ‮ ‬(Letters Of The Lips)

They are called الأَحْرُفُ‮ ‬الشَّفَوِيَّةِ‮ ‬because their مَخَْـرَِج is from the area of the lips.  There are four أَحْرُفُ‮ ‬شَّفَوِيَّةِا. They are the following letters:

ب, م, ف, and و – The مَخَْـرَِج of ف is at the inside of the lower lip and at the edge of the two upper front teeth.

The مَخَْـرَِج of ب and م is in the same location – between the two lips – except that the articulation of ب is stronger and located inside the lips while the مَخَْـرَِج of م is located near the outside of the lips.

The correct مَخَْـرَِج of و is in وَسَـطُ‮ ‬ُالشَّفَتَيْنِ (the middle of the lips) while they are apart.

Reading Exercise:

To Determine الْـمَخَارِج (The Places of Articulation for the Arabic Letters)

اَبْ‮  ‬اَتْ‮  ‬اَثْ‮  ‬اَجْ‮  ‬اَحْ‮  ‬اَخْ‮   ‬اَدْ‮   ‬اَذْ‮   ‬اَرْ‮   ‬اَزْ‮   ‬اَسْ‮  ‬اَشْ‮   ‬اَصْ‮   ‬اَضْ‮   ‬اَطْ‮   ‬اَظْ‮   ‬اَعْ‮   ‬اَغْ‮   ‬اَفْ‮   ‬اَقْ‮   ‬اَكْ‮   ‬اَلْ‮   ‬اَمْ‮   ‬اَنْ‮   ‬اَهْ‮   ‬اَوْ‮   ‬اَيْ

 

 

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 3 – The Verb and the Particle

الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬ (The Verb/Action)

The Arabic verb is a word which demonstrates the occurrence of something in time like:   جَـاءَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬يَجِئُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬جِئْ.  The time periods in which the verbs occur are three:

a) the past tense which shows that something has already happened;

b) the present tense which show the occurrence of something now;

c) the command tense which shows that an order has been given for action to be done immediately or in the near or distant future.

Among the signs of the verb are:

‮ ‬قَـدْ‮  ‬، سَ‮  ‬،‮ ‬سَـوْفَ  ،  تَـاءُ‮ ‬التأْنِـيث السَّكِنَةِ‮  ‬،‮ ‬ضَمِيرُ‮ ‬الْفَاعِلُ‮  ‬،‮ ‬نُونُ‮ ‬التَّوْكِيدِ

like when you say:

قَـدْ‮ ‬قَامَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَـدْ‮ ‬يَقُومُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬سَيَذْهَبُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬سَوْفَ‮ ‬يَذْهَبُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَامَتْ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قُمْتُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قُمْتِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَيَكْتُبَـنَّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَيَكْتَبَْـنَ،‮ ‬اكْتُبَـنَّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬اكْتَبْـنَ

الْـحَرْفُ (The Particle/Letter)

The particle  like: ‮ ‬هَـلْ‮ ‬،‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬،‮ ‬‮ ‬عَـلى‮ ‬،‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬مِنْis a word which shows the meaning of another which follows it, but unlike the noun and verb, it does not have signs which distinguishes it.

الـْحُـرُوفُ (the particles) are divided between:

a) those which commonly govern both verbs and nouns, like حَـرْفَـا الاِسْـتِفْهَامِ (the two particles of interrogation) and حُـرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles);

b) those  particles which govern nouns  exclusively, like حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَرِّ (the prepositions) and الْـحُـرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُشَـبَّهَةُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـاْلفِعْلِ (the particles which resemble the verb [that is to say إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِـهَا -([ إِنَّ and its sisters]);

c) those particles which govern verbs exclusively, like حُـرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّرْطِ (conditional particles), حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمُضَارِعِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of naṣb), and حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَزْمِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of jazm).  All of these particles will be discussed in greater detail in the coming chapters.

and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 2 – The Noun

الإِسْمُ (The Noun / Name)

The noun is a phrase that names something and defines its meaning without indicating when it occurred in time, like  ٌخَـالِـدٌ ,فَرَس  and  ٌعُـصْفُور.  Information about the noun becomes clearer through its signs, like when it is prefixed with الْ like الـرَّجُـل or suffixed with tanwiin, like فَـرَسٍ or preceded by حرف النداء (the particle of address), like أَيُّـهَا النّاسُ or حرف‮ ‬الجر (preposition) like:

اِعْتِمدْ‮ ‬على مَنْ‮ ‬تُبُق بِهِ.

Nouns can either be مَعْرِيف (specific) or نَكَرَة (non-specific).  The sign of a مَعْرِيف (specific noun) is الْ (the definite article) placed in the front of the noun like when you say: الـْمَسْجِـدُ and الْـبَيْتُ.   The sign of a نَـكَرَة (non-specific noun) is the placement of تَـنْوِينٌ (tanwiin) on the last letter of the noun, like when you say شَجَرَةٌ and كَبِيرُ.  The proper names can also be affixed with الْ and تَنْوِين like when you say: حَـسَنٌ and الـْـحَسَنُ.  This الْ however does not cause the proper name to become definite because it in itself is specific/definite by its nature.

From the above discussion, we can see that الْ and تَـنْوِينٌ are two signs  from among the signs which demonstrate that a word is a noun.

أَدَاة التَّعْرِيف (The Sign for Definiteness / Specification: الْ)

Any common or non-specific noun which has الْ prefixed to its front becomes a specific noun or definite noun.

التَّنْوِينُ (Tanwiin)

The word تَّنْوِينُ (tanwiin) is a verbal noun; its closes meaning in English is ‘nuunation’ – that is to say that an Arabic noun has had the sound of the letter ن (nuun) placed on its last letter an therefore that letter has been ‘nuunated’ or ‘nuunized’ depending which way one chooses to anglicize this word.

The sign of تَـنْوِين (tanwiin) is the doubling of the short vowel signs and they become fat-ḥatayn, ḍammatayn, and kasratayn – like when you say ــً (an),‮ ‬ــٍ (in) and ــٌ (un) depending on the role the word is playing in the sentence.

تَّنْوِين (Tanwiin) as previously mentioned occurs as a sign of the noun, therefore تَّنْوِين (tanwiin) is one of the ways to determine whether or not a word in an Arabic sentence is a noun – like when you say: حَدَثَنِي‮ ‬رَجُلٌ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مُجَاهِدٍ‮ ‬خَاضَ‮ ‬مَعْرَكَةً‮ ‬دَامِـيَّةً‮ ‬(A man told me concerning Mujaahid that he rushed to a bloody battlefield.)  In this sentence, every word which has تَّنْوِين (tanwiin) affixed to end is a noun. Its divisions are two: خَظًّا‮ ‬and وَقْعًا.

There are three kinds of تَّنْوِين (tanwiin):

1. تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬التَّمْكِين  is affixed to the fully declinable inflected nouns and because of this it is also called تَنْوِينُ‮ ‬الصرف (the tanwiin of the declinable noun), like when you say: رَجُـلٌ and كِـتَابٌ.

2. تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬التَّنْكِير‮ ‬(Tanwiin of the Indefinite Noun) is affixed to the nouns fixed in their construction, like the noun that belongs with the verb and the closed proper name, i.e. (وَيْه) which is divided between the definite and indefinite.  The noun that has tanwiin affixed to it is considered to be indefinite, while the noun which does not have tanwiin affixed to it is considered to be definite, like: صَـهْ وصَهٍ‮ ‬ومَهْ‮ ‬ومَهٍ‮ ‬وإِيهِ‮ ‬وإِيهٍ and like when you say مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬بسَبَوَيْهِ‮ ‬وسَـبَوَيْهٍ‮  ‬آخَر  (I passed by Sabawayhi and Sabawayhin).

When you say: صَـهْ, what you are seeking from the person to whom you are speaking is that ceases the conversation he is involve in, and if you say to him: مَـهْ, what you desire from him is that he completes the conversation he is involved in, and when you say: إِيهِ, you want to add more to the conversation.

As for when you say to him: ومَـهٍ وإِيهٍ وصَـهٍ with tanwiin affixed to the end, you desire that he either ceases every conversation, completes every conversation or add to every conversation.

3. تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) which is of three kinds:

a)  تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) which is affixed to the end of the noun that is the substitute for the sentence when the noun that is being used as a substitute for the sentence replaces the sentence- like that which Allah the Most High has said: وَأَنْتُمْ‮ ‬حِينَئِذٍ‮ ‬تَنْظُرونَ () that is to say: حِينَ‮ ‬إِذْ‮ ‬بَلَغْتَ‮ ‬الرُّوحَ‮ ‬الْـحُلْقُوم تَنْظُرونَ ().  And so you drop the sentence: بَلَغْتَ‮ ‬الرُّوحَ‮ ‬الْـحُلْقُوم‮ ‬and bring its substitute.

b) تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution)which is affixed  to every noun that has been substituted for the noun that is construct with it in an idaafah – like when you say: كُـلٌّ‮ ‬قَـائِـمُ that is say: كُـلُّ‮ ‬إِنْسَانٍ‮ ‬قَـائِـمٌ‮.‬  And so you drop إِنْـسَانٍ and replace it with the substitute noun that has tanwiin affixed to its end.

The words بَـعْدٌ and أَيُّ are similar to كُـلٌّ – like the statement of Ru’yah bin Mujaaj: دَايَنْتُ‮ ‬أَرْوَى وَالدُّيُون نَقَضَ‮    ‬فَمعلت بَعْضًا وَأَدْتُ‮ ‬بَعْضًا‮  ‬and أي‮ ‬أي‮ ‬امرئ.

c) تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) is affixed to the noun which is a substitute for the particle جَـوَارٍ and غَـوَاشٍ and similar to these are the broken nouns that are not fully declinable, and so تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) stands in the place of what has been dropped – like when you say: هؤلاء ضَـوارٍ and مَـرَرْتُ‮ ‬بِـضَوَارٍ, and so the letter ى has been replaced by تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) because the root word is ضَـوَارِي, however it is not تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬التَّمْكِين () because it is not fully declinable.

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 2 – The Noun

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 3 – The Verb and the Particle

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection) and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 6 -أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 1

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 2


Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences

Introduction

The Arabic Language and Its Sciences

Language in general: is what every nation of people uses to express by it what they mean or intend. There are many languages and they are different from each other in so far as each particular language is standardized by its agreed upon meaning. That is to say, one meaning which preoccupies the minds of a single nation of people, because each nation of people express themselves with expressions that are different from another.

The Arabic Language is the words that the Arabs use to express their intentions. It (the Arabic Language) has come to us by way of transmission, by way of the Noble Qur’an and Hadith which have preserved it for us, as well as by way of reliable sources from among the prose and poetical works of the Arabs.

The Arabic Sciences

When the Arabs became fearful of the ruination of the Arabic Language after they began intermingle with foreigners, they started to write it down in in dictionaries and they firmly establish its rules in order to preserve it from errors.  These rules or principles are known as the Arabic Sciences.

The sciences of Arabic language are sciences through which the aim is the preservation of the tongue and the pen from mistakes.  They are thirteen sciences: الصَّرْفُ (morphology), الإعراب  (analyzing and parsing sentences / word inflection), الرّسم the basic rules for writing words, الْـمَعَانِـي rhetoric, الْـبَدِيع methaphors, العَرُوض prosidy, الْقَوَافِي  rhyme, قُرْضُ‮ ‬الشِّعْر recitation of poetry, الإنشاء composition and style, الـخِطَابَة speech delivery,  تاريخ الأدب‮ ‬literary history and متن اللغة the core text of the language.  The most import of these is morphology and the analysis and parsing of sentences and words.

Preliminary Matters: Point 1 Letters, Words and Sentences

The first matter undoubtedly is that the Arabic language consists of words and words consists of the letters of the alphabet.  The alphabet in the Arabic language is twenty eight (28).  The first of them is hamzah (أ) and the last of them is yaa (ي) and they are of two (2) kinds Shamsiyyah and Qamariyyah.  Ash-Shamsiyyah is that in which the the laam (ل) of the definite article (ال) is not apparent with the rest of the word, but rather its sound is concealed; and standing in its place is a vowelized letter that is the same as the first letter of the noun to which the definite article is attached.  like when you say: الشَّمْسُ and sometimes pronounce it saying: أَشْشَمْسُ. As for al-Qamariyyah, the sound of the definite article is clearly expressed with it – like when you say: الْقَمَرُ.

There are fourteen (14) Shamsiyyah letters.  They are:

ت ث دذرزس ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن‮

There are fourteen Qamariyyah letters:

‮ ‬اب ج ح خ ع‮ ‬غ‮ ‬ف ق ك م ه و‮ ‬ي

Each of the letters are sound except, alif (ا), waaw (و) and (ي).  They are characterized this way, because change occurs in them in under certain conditions.

الـْحَرَكَاتُ (The Vowels)

There are three vowels which make the pronunciation of the letters possible.  They are ḍammah (ــُـ) which stands in relationship with the letter waaw (و), the fatḥah (ــَـ) which stands in relations with alif (ا), the kasrah (ــِـ), which stands in relations with yaa (ي).  Sukuun (ــْـ) is affixed to every letter except soft alif, because by its nature it is silent and vowelless.

حُرُوفُ‮ ‬اللِّينِ‮    ‬(The Soft Letters = ا, و, ي) and الـْمَدّ (The Letters of Elongation)

حَـرْف الْـعِلَّةِ (the weak letter) is called حَـرْفُ‮ ‬اللِّينِ (the soft letters = ا, و, ي) when it occurs vowelless and coming after it is a sound letter and at the same time it is prceded by a vowel related to it – like found in the words طُـول and حِـيل or unrelated to it like found in the words نَـوْم and خَـيْر.  And in regards to the first case mentioned it is also called حَـرْفُ‮ ‬مَـدِّ (a letter of elongation), because the sound is lengthen with the expression of it. The exception is alif = ا.  It can only be حَـرْفُ‮ ‬مَـدِّ (a letter of elongation), since nothing precedes it except a letter bearing a vowel related to it – like when you say: مَـالَ wherein the alif = ا is  حَرْفُ مَدِّ (a letter of elongation) only.  In the example of  the words طُول and جِيل, the waaw = و and the yaa = ي respectively are each حَـرْفُ‮ ‬مَـدِّ (a letter of elongation) and حُـرُوفُ‮ ‬اللِّينِ (the soft letters), because the sound is lengthen with the expression of them.  In the example of the words نَـوْم and خَـيْر, the waaw = و and the yaa = ي respectively are each حَـرْفُ‮ ‬لِِـينِ (a soft letter) only, because the sound of each of them is not lengthened.

الْكَلَمَةُ (The Word) and الْكَلاَمُ (Speech)

In the Arabic language, الْـكَلِمَةُ (the word) is an expression that demonstrates a singular meaning and in the Arabic language, there are three kinds of words: الاِسْمُ (the noun / name), الفِعْلُ (the verb / action), الحَرْفُ (the particle /  letter).

As for الْكَلاَمُ (speech), it is composed of either two or more words that have a relationship and that conveys complete information in that its speaker upon completion of his statement does not have to say more and the one who is listening does not have to hear more.

When we say الْكَلاَمُ (Speech) here, what we mean is الْكَلاَمُ‮ ‬الْعَرَبِيُّ (Arabic Speech).  As for foreign languages such as Berber and Turkish, they have their own rules and are therefore, they are not considered الْـكَلاَم (Speech) as defined by the Arabs.

As mentioned previously above, الْـكَلاَم (Speech) in the Arabic language is composed of two nor more words such as two nouns – like when you say: الْمَسْجِـدُ قَـرِيبٌ (The masjid is near by) or a verb and noun – like when you say: قَـامَ‮ ‬زَيْـدٌ‮ ‬(Zaid stood up) or الْـكَلاَم (Speech) can consist of more words than this – like when you say: الْمَدِينَةُ‮ ‬بَعِيدَةٌ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬هُنَا (The city is far from here) or ذَهَبَ‮ ‬مُحًمَّدٌ‮ ‬إِلَى كَانُو أَمْسًا (Muhammad went to Kano yesterday).

Each of these of these word constructs is called الـْجمْلَةٌ (the sentence) or the word construct which conveys a complete idea.

 
 
 
 
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language
 

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)